Advertisement

< Back to Article

Discovery of a Natural Microsporidian Pathogen with a Broad Tissue Tropism in Caenorhabditis elegans

Fig 4

N. displodere induces an intestinal response, and host feeding is required for infection.

(a) Normalized GFP induction after N. displodere or N. parisii infection of an intestinal infection reporter strain (ERT54 F26F2.1p::GFP, left), and an epidermal infection/cuticle damage reporter (AU189 nlp-29p::GFP, col-12p::dsRed, right), as measured by a COPAS Biosort. Experimental replicates were normalized by animal body size for ERT54 or by red fluorescence (col12p::dsred) for AU189. For ERT54, data are represented as mean values with SD from n = 882 animals from six replicates across two independent experiments (****p<0.0001, two-tailed Mann-Whitney test). For AU189, due to a batch effect, only data are shown from three replicates in one experiment, with mean values shown with SD from n = 900 animals (****p<0.0001, ns = not significant, two-tailed Mann-Whitney test). Data from the other AU189 replicates are shown in the supplement (S4 Fig). (b) Comparison of N. displodere infection of daf-2(ts) animals at the L3 stage (maintained at 15°C) or daf-2(ts) animals induced to form dauer larvae (maintained at 25°C). As controls, N2 animals were maintained at 15°C and infected with N. displodere as L3 animals at 25°C, and N. parisii spores were used to infect daf-2(ts) dauer larvae. (c) Comparison of the number of invasion events (counted as sporoplasms) occurring in N2 and eat-2 animals at 1 dpi. Events were counted as either intestinal (co-localizing with intestinal gut) or non-intestinal. Data are represented as mean values with SD from n = 75 animals from three independent experiments (****p<0.0001, two-tailed Mann-Whitney test). (d) Comparison of the number of invasion events (counted as sporoplasms) occurring in dyn-1(ts) and N2 animals at 30°C for 30 minutes for N. displodere (left) and N. parisii infection (right). Infection events were distinguished as either intestinal or non-intestinal as above. dyn-1(ts) animals are paralyzed and cease to feed at the non-permissive temperature (30°C). Data are represented as mean values with SD from n = 80 dyn-1(ts) animals and n = 50 N2 animals across two independent experiments (****p<0.0001, two-tailed Mann-Whitney test).

Fig 4

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005724.g004