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Parallel Epigenomic and Transcriptomic Responses to Viral Infection in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

Fig 2

Validation of RNA-seq results for genes in RNAi and Toll pathways.

A) RNA-seq results, demonstrating the log2 fold change (expression in infected vs control groups) of three genes from the RNAi pathway, which has been shown to be used in antiviral responses in Drosophila, as well as two genes from the Toll pathway that have been hypothesized to be implicated in antiviral defense. The log fold change was calculated using the DESeq package in R. B) qRT-PCR confirmation of the gene expression in separate bee samples fed either 50% sucrose solution (Sucrose Ctrl), bee extract from individuals with no IAPV infection (Bee Extract Ctrl), and bee extract from individuals with confirmed IAPV infection (Virus Trt)(ANOVA with Tukey HSD posthoc analysis; n = 10 bees/group). Accession numbers and primer sequences can be found in S1B Table.

Fig 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004713.g002