The Intracellular Bacterium Wolbachia Uses Parasitoid Wasps as Phoretic Vectors for Efficient Horizontal Transmission
Simulations were performed to explore the effect of horizontal transmission on the prevalence of Wolbachia. The blue lines are where there was no horizontal transmission (w = 0), the dashed orange line was a low rate (w = 0.01), and the solid orange line a moderate rate of horizontal transmission (w = 0.06). A: The effect of horizontal transmission when there is not effect of Wolbachia on host fitness and no reproductive manipulation (H = 1, F = 1). B: Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (H = 0.1, F = 1). C: Wolbachia carries a fitness benefit (H = 1, F = 1.05). In all cases the starting prevalence was p = 0.01 and the rate of imperfect maternal transmission was μ = 0.03.