Cytoplasmic Actin Is an Extracellular Insect Immune Factor which Is Secreted upon Immune Challenge and Mediates Phagocytosis and Direct Killing of Bacteria, and Is a Plasmodium Antagonist
P. falciparum oocyst–stage infection intensity after silencing of (A) An. gambiae actin (Ac), AgMDL1 (MDL1), actin and AgMDL1 (Ac+MDL1), or GFP or (B) actin (Ac) or GFP in septic vs aseptic mosquitoes. Circles represents the number of oocysts in an individual mosquito midgut, and the horizontal line indicates the median number. Three independent replicates were obtained, and the Mann-Whitney test was used to determine statistical significance and p-values (indicated above each group).