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Cytoplasmic Actin Is an Extracellular Insect Immune Factor which Is Secreted upon Immune Challenge and Mediates Phagocytosis and Direct Killing of Bacteria, and Is a Plasmodium Antagonist

Fig 1

An. gambiae actins display tissue, developmental-specific, and immune-responsive expression.

Transcript abundance of all An. gambiae actin genes in the (A) thorax, abdomen, and midgut adult tissues or (B) at distinct developmental stages compared to the adult female mosquito and normalized using the An. gambiae ribosomal S7 gene. Actin 5C (651 A, B, C); larval muscle actin (5095); adult muscle actin (1516); minor actins (1676) and (2127). Expression of actin 5C (651 A, B, C) and adult muscle actin (1516) in An. gambiae Sua5B cells after challenge with (C) LPS (10 μg/mL) (D) Lys-PGN (20 μg/mL) or (E) DAP-PGN (1 μg/mL) for 1,3,6 and 24 hr or (F) live E. coli and S. aureus (MOI 100) for 30 min or 2 hr, compared to non-challenged cells and normalized using the An. gambiae S7 gene.

Fig 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004631.g001