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Chromobacterium Csp_P Reduces Malaria and Dengue Infection in Vector Mosquitoes and Has Entomopathogenic and In Vitro Anti-pathogen Activities

Figure 1

Csp_P colonization of the mosquito midgut.

All mosquitoes were exposed to Csp_P via sugar meal. To introduce Csp_P via sugar meal, adults were allowed to feed for 24 h on 1.5% sucrose containing Csp_P liquid culture at a final concentration of ∼108 CFU/ml for An. gambiae and ∼106 (A, B) or 1010 (F) CFU/ml for Ae. aegypti. For antibiotic treated mosquitoes, the prevalence of Csp_P was measured in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae midguts at 3 days post-exposure (A). The number of colony forming units (CFUs) of Csp_P was also measured in the midguts of (B) Ae. aegypti and (C) An. gambiae 3 days after exposure to Csp_P. Experiments for antibiotic treated Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were replicated at least three times. Final sample sizes: nAe. aegypti/PBS = 37; nAe. aegypti/Csp_P = 37; nAn. gambiae/PBS = 30; nAn. gambiae/Csp_P = 17. For septic (i.e. non-antibiotic treated) mosquitoes, the prevalence and bacterial load of Csp_P was measured in An. gambiae midguts at 1 and 2 days post exposure (D,E). Experiments for septic An. gambiae were replicated twice. Final sample sizes: nAn. gambiae/PBS = 30; nAn. gambiae/Csp_P/Day 1 = 20; nAn. gambiae/Csp_P/Day 2 = 8. Prevalence of Csp_P was measured in Ae. aegypti midguts at 1 and 3 days post exposure (F). Experiments for septic Ae. aegypti were replicated twice. Final sample sizes: nAe. aegypti/Csp_P/Day 1 = 19; nAe. aegypti/Csp_P/Day 3 = 20. Horizontal lines indicate mean values. The following transformation was applied to all raw CFU data: y = log10(x+1), where x = original CFU count and y = plotted data values.

Figure 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004398.g001