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A Novel Mouse Model of Schistosoma haematobium Egg-Induced Immunopathology

Figure 3

S. haematobium egg-injected bladders demonstrate a local Type 2 immune response.

Egg-injected bladders feature elevated levels of the Type 2-associated cytokines IL-4, IL-13, and eotaxin (A) without significant changes in TH1- or TH17-associated cytokines (e.g. IFN-γ [B] and IL-17 [C], respectively). Cytokines and chemokines associated with innate immune activation (e.g. KC, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-3, [D]) are persistently elevated relative to control. The immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β were not clearly differentially regulated in egg- versus control-injected mice (E).

Figure 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002605.g003