Cross-Species Transmission of a Novel Adenovirus Associated with a Fulminant Pneumonia Outbreak in a New World Monkey Colony
(A) Map of the titi monkey cages situated in one quadrant of a building, showing the locations of asymptomatic, at-risk monkeys (brown or green), affected surviving monkeys (black), and monkeys who died from their illness (skeleton). 3 monkeys were moved into the building (arrows pointing down and to the left) and 4 monkeys out of the building (arrows pointing up and to the right) during the 3rd week of the outbreak. The upper left photograph shows an image of an adult male titi monkey and his infant. The upper right inset shows the location of the titi monkey cages relative to other rhesus monkey cages in the building. Asymptomatic monkeys with positive serum antibody titers to TMAdV 4 months after the outbreak are shown in green. (B) Epidemic curve of the outbreak, with the number of cases in blue and cumulative attack rate in red. (C) Anteroposterior chest radiograph of an affected titi monkey, showing bilateral basilar infiltrates and a prominent right middle lobe consolidation. (D) 1 – gross photograph of lungs at necropsy; the lungs failed to fully collapse upon opening the chest, and a single ∼1.5 cm focus of dark red discoloration (hemorrhage) can be seen in the left caudal lobe. 2 – photomicrograph of H&E stained lung tissue showing a severe diffuse necrotizing bronchopneumonia characterized by the presence of hemorrhage and intranuclear inclusions (arrows). 3 – photomicrograph of H&E stained liver tissue showing a multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with numerous intranuclear inclusions (arrows). 4 – transmission electron micrograph of an affected lung alveolus (scale bar = 1 µm) filled with adenovirus-like particles (inset, scale bar = 0.1 µm).