Evolutionary Dynamics and Emergence of Panzootic H5N1 Influenza Viruses
Bayesian skyline plot of the HA gene (A) showing changes in genetic diversity of H5N1 viruses. A measure of genetic diversity is given on the y-axis with the 95% HPD shown in blue. The red dashed line indicates the mean TMRCA of the Gs/GD lineage; the blue dashed line represents the time of the first detected H5N1 outbreak China. HA gene tree (B) scaled to time (horizontal axis) generated using the SRD06 codon model and uncorrelated relaxed clock model. Nodes correspond to mean TMRCAs and blue horizontal bars at nodes represent the 95% HPDs of TMRCAs. Numbers to the right of the HA tree indicate H5N1 clades based on the World Health Organization nomenclature system . An identical phylogenetic tree with virus names is shown in Figure S3. The red vertical bar in both panels indicates the period of divergence of major H5N1 lineages in poultry.