About the Authors

Fernanda O. Novais

Affiliation Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Lucas P. Carvalho

Affiliation Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Doenças Tropicais-INCT-DT(CNPq/MCT), Serviço de Imunologia, Hospital Universitario Prof. Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

Joel W. Graff

Affiliation Iowa City VA Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

Daniel P. Beiting

Affiliation Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Gordon Ruthel

Affiliation Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

David S. Roos

Affiliation Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Michael R. Betts

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Michael H. Goldschmidt

Affiliation Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Mary E. Wilson

Affiliation Iowa City VA Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

Camila I. de Oliveira

Affiliation Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz, Fundaçao Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Brazil

Phillip Scott

pscott@vet.upenn.edu

Affiliation Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FON LPC JWG DPB DSR MRB MEW CIO PS. Performed the experiments: FON LPC JWG DPB GR. Analyzed the data: FON DPB GR MHG MRB PS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DSR MRB MEW. Wrote the paper: FON PS.