About the Authors

Mariana Varela

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Esther Schnettler

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Marco Caporale

Affiliations MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, Istituto G. Caporale, Teramo, Italy

Claudio Murgia

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Gerald Barry

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Melanie McFarlane

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Eva McGregor

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Ilaria M. Piras

Affiliations MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italy

Andrew Shaw

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Catherine Lamm

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Anna Janowicz

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Martin Beer

Affiliation Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany

Mandy Glass

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Vanessa Herder

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Center of Systems Neuroscience, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany

Kerstin Hahn

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Center of Systems Neuroscience, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany

Wolfgang Baumgärtner

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Center of Systems Neuroscience, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany

Alain Kohl

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Massimo Palmarini

massimo.palmarini@glasgow.ac.uk

Affiliation MRC Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MV ES AK MP. Performed the experiments: MV ES MC CM GB MMcF EMcG IMP AS AJ MG. Analyzed the data: MV ES MC CM GB AS CL MB VH KH WB AK MP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MB VH KH WB. Wrote the paper: MV AK MP.