About the Authors

Xue Wang

Contributed equally to this work with: Xue Wang, Fengting Xu, Jiasen Liu

Affiliations National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics (IBP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Fengting Xu

Contributed equally to this work with: Xue Wang, Fengting Xu, Jiasen Liu

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

Jiasen Liu

Contributed equally to this work with: Xue Wang, Fengting Xu, Jiasen Liu

Affiliation State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Harbin, China

Bingquan Gao

Affiliations National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics (IBP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Yanxin Liu

Affiliation Beckman Institute and Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America

Yujia Zhai

Affiliation National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics (IBP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China

Jun Ma

Affiliations National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics (IBP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Kai Zhang

Affiliations National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics (IBP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Timothy S. Baker

Affiliation Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Division of Biological Sciences, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Klaus Schulten

Affiliation Beckman Institute and Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America

Dong Zheng

zhengd@bnu.edu.cn (DZ); pangh@xtal.tsinghua.edu.cn (HP); feisun@ibp.ac.cn (FS)

Affiliation Analytical and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

Hai Pang

zhengd@bnu.edu.cn (DZ); pangh@xtal.tsinghua.edu.cn (HP); feisun@ibp.ac.cn (FS)

Affiliation School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

Fei Sun

zhengd@bnu.edu.cn (DZ); pangh@xtal.tsinghua.edu.cn (HP); feisun@ibp.ac.cn (FS)

Affiliation National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics (IBP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DZ HP FS. Performed the experiments: XW FX JL BG YL YZ JM KZ. Analyzed the data: XW HP FS. Wrote the paper: FS HP TSB YL KS.