About the Authors

John S. Cho

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Yi Guo

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Romela Irene Ramos

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Frank Hebroni

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Seema B. Plaisier

Affiliation Department of Translational Immunology, Dirks/Dougherty Laboratory for Cancer Research, John Wayne Cancer Institute, Santa Monica, California, United States of America

Caiyun Xuan

Affiliation Department of Translational Immunology, Dirks/Dougherty Laboratory for Cancer Research, John Wayne Cancer Institute, Santa Monica, California, United States of America

Jennifer L. Granick

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Hironori Matsushima

Affiliation Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, Ohio, United States of America

Akira Takashima

Affiliation Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, Ohio, United States of America

Yoichiro Iwakura

Affiliation Center for Experimental Medicine and Systems Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan

Ambrose L. Cheung

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of America

Genhong Cheng

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Delphine J. Lee

Affiliation Department of Translational Immunology, Dirks/Dougherty Laboratory for Cancer Research, John Wayne Cancer Institute, Santa Monica, California, United States of America

Scott I. Simon

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Lloyd S. Miller

lloydmiller@jhmi.edu

Affiliation Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JSC DJL SIS LSM. Performed the experiments: JSC YG RIR FH SBP CX JLG HM. Analyzed the data: JSC LSM YG RIR FH CX SBP DJL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SBP HM ALC AT YI ALC GC DJL. Wrote the paper: JSC LSM. Performed the analysis of the microarray data: SBP DJL. Provided expertise and helped perform experiments with fluorescence reporter mice: HM AT SIS. Generated and provided technical assistance with the bacterial strain used in this study: ALC. Provided reagents, intellectual input, and technical assistance: YI GC.