About the Authors

Molly R. Perkins

Affiliations Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Caroline Ryschkewitsch

Affiliation Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Julia C. Liebner

Affiliation Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Maria Chiara G. Monaco

Affiliation Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Danielle Himelfarb

Affiliation Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Sara Ireland

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Annelys Roque

Affiliation Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Heather L. Edward

Affiliation Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Peter N. Jensen

Affiliation Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Gina Remington

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Thomas Abraham

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Jaspreet Abraham

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Benjamin Greenberg

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Charles Kaufman

Affiliation Louisiana Neurologic Consultants. Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America

Chris LaGanke

Affiliation North Central Neurology, Cullman, Alabama, United States of America

Nancy L. Monson

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Xiaoning Xu

Affiliation MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Elliot Frohman

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Eugene O. Major

majorg@ninds.nih.gov (EOM); ddouek@mail.nih.gov (DCD)

Affiliation Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Daniel C. Douek

majorg@ninds.nih.gov (EOM); ddouek@mail.nih.gov (DCD)

Affiliation Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

I have read the journal's policy and have the following conflicts: Dr. Greenberg has received honoraria from the MSAA. He has received consulting fees from Sanofi Aventis, The Greater Good Foundation, Biogen Idec, Elan, Applied Clinical Intelligence and DioGenix. He holds equity in DioGenix, Inc. He receives grant support from the Guthy Jackson Charitable Foundation, Amplimmune and Accelerated Cure Project. Dr. Frohman has received speaker and consulting fees from Biogen Idec, TEVA, Novartis, and Acorda; and consulting fees from Abbott and Genzyme. This does not alter our adherence to all PLoS Pathogens policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BG DCD EF EOM MRP XX. Performed the experiments: AR CK CL CR DH GR HLE JA JCL MCGM MRP PNJ SI TA. Analyzed the data: CK CL CR GR JA JCL MCGM MRP NLM TA. Wrote the paper: DCD EOM MRP. Gathered patient data and samples: BG CK CL CR EOM EF GR JA NM TA.