About the Authors

Hui Li

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Mark B. Stoddard

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Shuyi Wang

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Lily M. Blair

Affiliation Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America

Elena E. Giorgi

Affiliations Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America, Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

Erica H. Parrish

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Gerald H. Learn

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Peter Hraber

Affiliation Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

Paul A. Goepfert

Affiliation University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

Michael S. Saag

Affiliation University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

Thomas N. Denny

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Barton F. Haynes

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Beatrice H. Hahn

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Ruy M. Ribeiro

Affiliation Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

Alan S. Perelson

Affiliation Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

Bette T. Korber

Affiliations Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

Tanmoy Bhattacharya

Affiliations Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

George M. Shaw

shawg@upenn.edu

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: HL LMB EEG PAG MSS TND BFH BHH RMR ASP BTK TB GMS. Performed the experiments: HL MBS SW EHP. Analyzed the data: HL LMB EEG GHL PH BHH RMR ASP BTK TB GMS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LMB EEG PAG MSS TND BFH RMR ASP BTK TB. Wrote the paper: HL MBS SW LMB EEG EHP GHL PH PAG MSS TND BFH BHH RMR ASP BTK TB GMS.