About the Authors

Tanya Sperling

Contributed equally to this work with: Tanya Sperling, Monika Ołdak

Affiliation Institute of Virology and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany

Monika Ołdak

Contributed equally to this work with: Tanya Sperling, Monika Ołdak

Affiliations Institute of Virology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany, Department of Histology and Embryology Center of Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Barbara Walch-Rückheim

Affiliation Institute of Virology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany

Claudia Wickenhauser

Affiliations Institute of Pathology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany, Institute of Pathology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

John Doorbar

Affiliation Division of Virology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, United Kingdom

Herbert Pfister

Affiliation Institute of Virology and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany

Magdalena Malejczyk

Affiliation Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Sławomir Majewski

Affiliation Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Andrew C. Keates

Affiliation Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sigrun Smola

sigrun.smola@uks.eu

Affiliations Institute of Virology and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany, Institute of Virology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SS TS MO BW. Performed the experiments: TS MO BW CW JD. Analyzed the data: TS SS MO BW JD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MM SM ACK HP JD. Wrote the paper: SS MO TS.