About the Authors

Katharine J. Bar

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Chun-yen Tsao

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Shilpa S. Iyer

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Julie M. Decker

Affiliation University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

Yongping Yang

Affiliation Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Mattia Bonsignori

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Xi Chen

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Kwan-Ki Hwang

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

David C. Montefiori

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Hua-Xin Liao

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Peter Hraber

Affiliation Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

William Fischer

Affiliation Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

Hui Li

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Shuyi Wang

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Sarah Sterrett

Affiliation University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

Brandon F. Keele

Affiliation SAIC-Frederick Inc, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

Vitaly V. Ganusov

Affiliation University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America

Alan S. Perelson

Affiliation Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

Bette T. Korber

Affiliation Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

Ivelin Georgiev

Affiliation Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Jason S. McLellan

Affiliation Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Jeffrey W. Pavlicek

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Feng Gao

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Barton F. Haynes

Affiliation Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Beatrice H. Hahn

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Peter D. Kwong

Affiliation Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

George M. Shaw

shawg@upenn.edu

Affiliation Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KJB CT MB WF VVG ASP BTK JSM PDK GMS. Performed the experiments: KJB CT SSI JMD YY MB XC KH HXL HL PH WF SW SS VVG JWP. Analyzed the data: KJB DCM HXL HL BFK VVG ASP BTK IG JSM FG BFH BHH PDK GMS. Wrote the paper: KJB VVG ASP BTK IG BFH BHH PDK GMS.