About the Authors

Wayne Hunter
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Horticultural Research Lab, Fort Pierce, Florida, United States of America

James Ellis
University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Michael Williams, Diana Cox-Foster
Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Jerry Hayes, Dave Westervelt
Florida Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant and Apiary Inspection, Apiary Inspection Section, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

Eitan Glick, Nitzan Paldi
Beeologics Inc., Miami, Florida, United States of America

Ilan Sela, Eyal Maori
Robert H. Smith Institute for Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Virus Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

Jeffery Pettis
USDA, ARS, Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

Dr. Cox-Foster and J. Hayes are on the technical advisory board for Beeologics, Dr. Ilan Sela is the CSO and co-founder, and Eitan Glick and Nitzan Paldi are employees of Beeologics. Dr. Jeffery Pettis is the Research Leader responsible for bee research at the Bee Lab, USDA, ARS, Maryland, and has established a cooperative agreement with Beeologics, post completion of this research.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JE DV JH JP NP. Performed the experiments: WH JE DV JH DW EG MW IS EM JP DCF NP. Analyzed the data: DV NP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: WH JE DV JH DW EG MW IS JP DCF NP. Wrote the paper: WH JE DV EM NP. Organized regulatory collaborations and inspections: JE DV JH DW MW NP.