About the Authors

Rebecca S. Rudicell, Beatrice H. Hahn
Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

James Holland Jones
Department of Anthropology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

James Holland Jones
Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Emily E. Wroblewski, Deus C. Mjungu, Clarence Lehman, Michael L. Wilson
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

Gerald H. Learn, Yingying Li, Joel D. Robertson, Beatrice H. Hahn
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

Elizabeth Greengrass
Fauna and Flora International, Monrovia, Liberia

Falk Grossmann
Africa Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

Shadrack Kamenya, Anna Mosser, D. Anthony Collins
Gombe Stream Research Centre, The Jane Goodall Institute, Kigoma, Tanzania

Lilian Pintea, Jane Goodall
The Jane Goodall Institute, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf
Lester E. Fisher Center for the Study and Conservation of Apes, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Brandon F. Keele
The AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

Anne E. Pusey
Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Michael L. Wilson
Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

Corresponding Author

wilso198@umn.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RSR JHJ JG BHH AEP MLW. Performed the experiments: RSR EEW GHL YL JDR EG FG SK LP DCM EVL AM CL DAC BFK AEP. Analyzed the data: RSR JHJ EEW GHL YL JDR EG FG SK LP DCM EVL AM CL DAC BFK BHH AEP MLW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YL. Wrote the paper: RSR JHJ BHH MLW. Performed non-invasive SIVcpz screening and genetic analysis: RSR BFK. Developed mathematical models: JHJ. Performed genetic analyses and calculated dyadic genetic relatedness: EEW. Performed phylogenetic analysis: GHL. Performed non-invasive SIVcpz screening: YL. Performed noninvasive SIVcpz screening; performed genetic analysis: JDR. Conducted and supervised fieldwork: EG FG SK DCM EVL AM DAC MLW. Mapped habitat from satellite imagery and analyzed geospatial data: LP. Provided data on chimpanzee health: EVL. Estimated SIVcpz transmission probabilities: CL. Founded and directed the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe: JG. Headed the virology and genetics lab: BHH. Maintained the long-term behavioral and demographic database: AEP. Extracted and analyzed demographic data and analyzed habitat quality and mating data: MLW. Coordinated the contributions of all authors: RSR BHH MLW.