About the Authors

Kathrin Endt

Contributed equally to this work with: Kathrin Endt, Bärbel Stecher

Affiliation Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Bärbel Stecher

Contributed equally to this work with: Kathrin Endt, Bärbel Stecher

Affiliation Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Samuel Chaffron

Affiliation Institute of Molecular Biology and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Emma Slack

Affiliation Gastroenterology Inselspital, Department Klinische Forschung, Bern, Switzerland

Nicolas Tchitchek

Affiliation Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques & CNRS USR3078, Bures sur Yvette, France

Arndt Benecke

Affiliation Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques & CNRS USR3078, Bures sur Yvette, France

Laurye Van Maele

Affiliation Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U801; Institut Pasteur de Lille; Univ. Lille Nord de France, UDSL, Lille, France

Jean-Claude Sirard

Affiliation Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U801; Institut Pasteur de Lille; Univ. Lille Nord de France, UDSL, Lille, France

Andreas J. Mueller

Affiliation Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Mathias Heikenwalder

Affiliation Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland

Andrew J. Macpherson

Affiliation Gastroenterology Inselspital, Department Klinische Forschung, Bern, Switzerland

Richard Strugnell

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Christian von Mering

Affiliation Institute of Molecular Biology and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Wolf-Dietrich Hardt

hardt@micro.biol.ethz.ch

Affiliation Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KE BS WDH. Performed the experiments: KE BS. Analyzed the data: KE BS SC ES NT AB LVM JCS AJM MH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ES AB JCS AJM RS CvM. Wrote the paper: BS WDH.