About the Authors

Ho Seong Seo

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Yan Q. Xiong

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, United States of America

Jennifer Mitchell

Affiliation University College, Dublin, Ireland

Ravin Seepersaud

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Arnold S. Bayer

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, United States of America

Paul M. Sullam

paul.sullam@ucsf.edu

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: HSS RS ASB PMS. Performed the experiments: HSS YQX JM RS. Analyzed the data: HSS ASB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ASB PMS. Wrote the paper: HSS PMS.