About the Authors

Sabrina Krief
UMR 7206-USM 104, Eco-Anthropologie et Ethnobiologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Ananias A. Escalante, M. Andreina Pacheco
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

Lawrence Mugisha
Chimpanzee Sanctuary & Wildlife Conservation Trust (CSWCT), Entebbe, Uganda

Claudine André
Lola Ya Bonobo Bonobo Sanctuary, “Petites Chutes de la Lukaya”, Kimwenza–Mont Ngafula, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Michel Halbwax, Anne Fischer
Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Jean-Michel Krief
Projet pour la Conservation des Grands Singes, Paris, France

John M. Kasenene
Department of Botany, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Makerere University Biological Field Station, Fort Portal, Uganda

Mike Crandfield
Research and Conservation Program, The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Omar E. Cornejo
Emory University, Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Jean-Marc Chavatte, Georges Snounou
USM0307, Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Clara Lin, Anne Charlotte Grüner, Laurent Rénia, Georges Snounou
Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore

Franck Letourneur, Anne Charlotte Grüner, Laurent Rénia
Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

Thomas F. McCutchan
Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Georges Snounou
INSERM UMR S 945, Paris, France

Georges Snounou
Université Pierre & Marie Curie, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France

Georges Snounou
Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SK AAE MAP MC OEC ACG TFM LR GS. Performed the experiments: SK AAE MAP LM OEC JMC CL FL ACG GS. Analyzed the data: SK AAE MAP CA MH AF JMK JMK MC OEC JMC CL ACG TFM LR GS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SK AAE MAP LM CA MH AF JMK JMK MC OEC JMC CL FL ACG TFM LR GS. Wrote the paper: SK AAE MAP OEC GS.