About the Authors

Sabrina Krief

Contributed equally to this work with: Sabrina Krief, Ananias A. Escalante

Affiliation UMR 7206-USM 104, Eco-Anthropologie et Ethnobiologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Ananias A. Escalante

Contributed equally to this work with: Sabrina Krief, Ananias A. Escalante

Ananias.Escalante@asu.edu (AAE); georges.snounou@upmc.fr or gsnounou@gmail.com (GS)

Affiliation School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

M. Andreina Pacheco

Affiliation School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

Lawrence Mugisha

Affiliation Chimpanzee Sanctuary & Wildlife Conservation Trust (CSWCT), Entebbe, Uganda

Claudine André

Affiliation Lola Ya Bonobo Bonobo Sanctuary, “Petites Chutes de la Lukaya”, Kimwenza–Mont Ngafula, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Michel Halbwax

Affiliation Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Anne Fischer

Address Current address: African Insect Science for Food and Health, Nairobi, Kenya

Affiliation Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Jean-Michel Krief

Affiliation Projet pour la Conservation des Grands Singes, Paris, France

John M. Kasenene

Affiliation Department of Botany, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Makerere University Biological Field Station, Fort Portal, Uganda

Mike Crandfield

Affiliation Research and Conservation Program, The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Omar E. Cornejo

Affiliation Emory University, Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Jean-Marc Chavatte

Affiliation USM0307, Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Clara Lin

Affiliation Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore

Franck Letourneur

Affiliation Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

Anne Charlotte Grüner

Affiliations Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

Thomas F. McCutchan

Affiliation Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Laurent Rénia

Affiliations Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

Georges Snounou

Ananias.Escalante@asu.edu (AAE); georges.snounou@upmc.fr or gsnounou@gmail.com (GS)

Affiliations USM0307, Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, INSERM UMR S 945, Paris, France, Université Pierre & Marie Curie, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SK AAE MAP MC OEC ACG TFM LR GS. Performed the experiments: SK AAE MAP LM OEC JMC CL FL ACG GS. Analyzed the data: SK AAE MAP CA MH AF JMK JMK MC OEC JMC CL ACG TFM LR GS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SK AAE MAP LM CA MH AF JMK JMK MC OEC JMC CL FL ACG TFM LR GS. Wrote the paper: SK AAE MAP OEC GS.