About the Authors

Mehul S. Suthar

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Daphne Y. Ma

Contributed equally to this work with: Daphne Y. Ma, Sunil Thomas

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Sunil Thomas

Contributed equally to this work with: Daphne Y. Ma, Sunil Thomas

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Jennifer M. Lund

Current address: Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Nu Zhang

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Stephane Daffis

Affiliation Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Alexander Y. Rudensky

Current address: Department of Immunology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Michael J. Bevan

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Edward A. Clark

Affiliations Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Murali-Krishna Kaja

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Michael S. Diamond

Affiliation Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Michael Gale Jr

mgale@u.washington.edu

Affiliations Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MSS JML MG. Performed the experiments: MSS DYM ST JML MSD. Analyzed the data: MSS DYM JML NZ SD AR MB EAC MK MSD MG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JML NZ SD AR MB EAC MK. Wrote the paper: MSS MG.