About the Authors

Kei Miyakawa

Affiliations AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Akihide Ryo

aryo@nih.go.jp (AR); nyama@nih.go.jp (NY)

Affiliation AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Tsutomu Murakami

Affiliation AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Kenji Ohba

Affiliation AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Shoji Yamaoka

Affiliation Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Mitsunori Fukuda

Affiliation Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan

John Guatelli

Affiliation Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Naoki Yamamoto

aryo@nih.go.jp (AR); nyama@nih.go.jp (NY)

Affiliation AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Analyzed the data: TM KO JG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TM SY MF. Performed the research, collected and analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript: KM. Designed and supervised research, collected and analyzed the data: AR. Designed the research, supervised, and commented on the manuscript: NY.