About the Authors

Joel C. Watts

Contributed equally to this work with: Joel C. Watts, Hairu Huo, Yu Bai, Sepehr Ehsani

Address Current address: Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Affiliations Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Hairu Huo

Contributed equally to this work with: Joel C. Watts, Hairu Huo, Yu Bai, Sepehr Ehsani

Affiliation Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Yu Bai

Contributed equally to this work with: Joel C. Watts, Hairu Huo, Yu Bai, Sepehr Ehsani

Address Current address: Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

Affiliation Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Sepehr Ehsani

Contributed equally to this work with: Joel C. Watts, Hairu Huo, Yu Bai, Sepehr Ehsani

Affiliations Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Amy Hye Won

Affiliations Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Tujin Shi

Affiliation Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Nathalie Daude

Affiliation Alberta Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Agnes Lau

Affiliation Alberta Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Rebecca Young

Affiliation McLaughlin Research Institute, Great Falls, Montana, United States of America

Lei Xu

Affiliation McLaughlin Research Institute, Great Falls, Montana, United States of America

George A. Carlson

Affiliation McLaughlin Research Institute, Great Falls, Montana, United States of America

David Williams

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

David Westaway

Affiliation Alberta Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Gerold Schmitt-Ulms

g.schmittulms@utoronto.ca

Affiliations Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: D. Westaway, G. Schmitt-Ulms. Performed the experiments: J. Watts, H. Huo, Y. Bai, A. Won, R. Young, L. Xu, G. Schmitt-Ulms. Analyzed the data: J. Watts, H. Huo, S. Ehsani, T. Shi, N. Daude, A. Lau, G. Carlson, G. Schmitt-Ulms. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: J. Watts, D. Williams, D. Westaway, G. Schmitt-Ulms. Wrote the paper: G. Schmitt-Ulms.