About the Authors

Xavier Charpentier

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Joëlle E. Gabay

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Moraima Reyes

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Jing W. Zhu

Affiliation Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Arthur Weiss

Affiliation Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Howard A. Shuman

has7@columbia.edu

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: XC JEG HAS. Performed the experiments: XC JEG MR. Analyzed the data: XC JEG JZ AW HAS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JZ AW. Wrote the paper: XC JEG HAS.