About the Authors

R. Scott Cornman

Affiliation USDA-ARS Bee Research Lab, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

Yan Ping Chen

Affiliation USDA-ARS Bee Research Lab, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

Michael C. Schatz

Affiliation Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America

Craig Street

Affiliation Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Yan Zhao

Affiliation USDA-ARS Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

Brian Desany

Affiliation 454 Life Sciences/Roche Applied Sciences, Branford, Connecticut, United States of America

Michael Egholm

Affiliation 454 Life Sciences/Roche Applied Sciences, Branford, Connecticut, United States of America

Stephen Hutchison

Affiliation 454 Life Sciences/Roche Applied Sciences, Branford, Connecticut, United States of America

Jeffery S. Pettis

Affiliation USDA-ARS Bee Research Lab, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

W. Ian Lipkin

Affiliation Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Jay D. Evans

Jay.evans@ars.usda.gov

Affiliation USDA-ARS Bee Research Lab, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

ME, SH, and BD are employed by 454 Life Sciences/Roche Applied Sciences.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: YPC JSP WIL JDE. Performed the experiments: YPC ME SH WIL. Analyzed the data: RSC MCS CS YZ BD JDE. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RSC YPC MCS JSP WIL JDE. Wrote the paper: RSC YPC JDE.