About the Authors

Michael Walther

mwalther@mrc.gm

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

David Jeffries

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Olivia C. Finney

Affiliations Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Madi Njie

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Augustine Ebonyi

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Susanne Deininger

Affiliations Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany

Emma Lawrence

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Alfred Ngwa-Amambua

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Shamanthi Jayasooriya

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Ian H. Cheeseman

Affiliations Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Natalia Gomez-Escobar

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Joseph Okebe

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

David J. Conway

Affiliations Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Eleanor M. Riley

Affiliation Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MW SD EMR. Performed the experiments: MW OCF MN EJL ANA SJ IHC NGE. Analyzed the data: MW DJJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MW NGE DJC EMR. Wrote the paper: MW EMR. Responsible for the statistical model applied to the data: DJJ. Contributed to FACS work: OCF. Contributed substantially to various aspects of the lab work: MN. Responsible for the recruitment of the study patients: AE. Designed the RT-PCR experiments: SD. Did most of the ELISPOTs: EJL. Performed the sequencing of the parasites: ANA. Contributed to flow cytometry and ELISPOT experiments: SJ. Contributed to parasite sequencing and prepared malaria antigens: IHC. Provided expertise on designing the RT-PCR assays and helped with parasite sequencing: NGE. Recruited patients into the study and responsible for the conduct according to GCP guidelines: JO. Provided expertise in the design and analysis: DJC. Contributed to the overall design and concept of the study as well as to the analysis and write up: EMR.