About the Authors

Michael Walther, David Jeffries, Olivia C. Finney, Madi Njie, Augustine Ebonyi, Susanne Deininger, Emma Lawrence, Alfred Ngwa-Amambua, Shamanthi Jayasooriya, Ian H. Cheeseman, Natalia Gomez-Escobar, Joseph Okebe, David J. Conway
Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Olivia C. Finney, Ian H. Cheeseman, David J. Conway, Eleanor M. Riley
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Susanne Deininger
Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MW SD EMR. Performed the experiments: MW OCF MN EJL ANA SJ IHC NGE. Analyzed the data: MW DJJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MW NGE DJC EMR. Wrote the paper: MW EMR. Responsible for the statistical model applied to the data: DJJ. Contributed to FACS work: OCF. Contributed substantially to various aspects of the lab work: MN. Responsible for the recruitment of the study patients: AE. Designed the RT-PCR experiments: SD. Did most of the ELISPOTs: EJL. Performed the sequencing of the parasites: ANA. Contributed to flow cytometry and ELISPOT experiments: SJ. Contributed to parasite sequencing and prepared malaria antigens: IHC. Provided expertise on designing the RT-PCR assays and helped with parasite sequencing: NGE. Recruited patients into the study and responsible for the conduct according to GCP guidelines: JO. Provided expertise in the design and analysis: DJC. Contributed to the overall design and concept of the study as well as to the analysis and write up: EMR.