About the Authors

Reiko Yoshida, Manabu Igarashi, Daisuke Tomabechi, Hiroshi Kida, Kimihito Ito, Ayato Takada
Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Hiroichi Ozaki
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan

Noriko Kishida
Laboratory of Influenza Viruses, Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Tokyo, Japan

Hiroshi Kida
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Corresponding Author

atakada@czc.hokudai.ac.jp

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RY AT. Performed the experiments: RY HO NK DT AT. Analyzed the data: RY MI HK KI AT. Wrote the paper: RY MI HO AT. Performed the molecular modeling: MI.