About the Authors

Joëlle Mounier

Affiliations Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, Inserm U786, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Michel R. Popoff

Affiliation Unité de Recherche et d'Expertise Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Jost Enninga

Affiliations Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, Inserm U786, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Margaret C. Frame

Affiliation Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Philippe J. Sansonetti

Affiliations Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, Inserm U786, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Guy Tran Van Nhieu

gtranvan@pasteur.fr

Affiliations Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, Inserm U786, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GTVN. Performed the experiments: JM GTVN. Analyzed the data: JM MRP PJS GTVN. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MRP JE MCF GTVN. Wrote the paper: GTVN.