About the Authors

Timothy Sheahan

Contributed equally to this work with: Timothy Sheahan, Thomas E. Morrison

Affiliations Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Thomas E. Morrison

Contributed equally to this work with: Timothy Sheahan, Thomas E. Morrison

Affiliations Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Carolina Vaccine Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

William Funkhouser

Affiliation Department of Pathology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Satoshi Uematsu

Affiliation WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Laboratory of Host Defense, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan

Shizou Akira

Affiliation WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Laboratory of Host Defense, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan

Ralph S. Baric

rbaric@email.unc.edu (RSB); heisem@med.unc.edu (MTH)

Affiliations Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Mark T. Heise

rbaric@email.unc.edu (RSB); heisem@med.unc.edu (MTH)

Affiliations Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Carolina Vaccine Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TS TEM RSB MTH. Performed the experiments: TS TEM. Analyzed the data: TS TEM WF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SU SA. Wrote the paper: TS TEM WF RSB MTH.