About the Authors

Karen A. Chachu

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Anna D. LoBue

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

David W. Strong

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Ralph S. Baric

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Herbert W. Virgin

virgin@wustl.edu

Affiliations Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KAC ADL RSB SWV. Performed the experiments: KAC ADL DWS. Analyzed the data: KAC ADL RSB SWV. Wrote the paper: KAC ADL DWS RSB SWV.