About the Authors

Vivien G. Dugan

Affiliation Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Rubing Chen

Affiliation Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

David J. Spiro

Affiliation The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Naomi Sengamalay

Affiliation The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Jennifer Zaborsky

Affiliation The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Elodie Ghedin

Affiliation Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Jacqueline Nolting

Affiliation Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

David E. Swayne

Affiliation Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

Jonathan A. Runstadler

Affiliation Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States of America

George M. Happ

Affiliation Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States of America

Dennis A. Senne

Affiliation National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, United States of America

Ruixue Wang

Affiliation Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Richard D. Slemons

Affiliation Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

Edward C. Holmes

Affiliations Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Jeffery K. Taubenberger

taubenbergerj@niaid.nih.gov

Affiliation Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: J. Taubenberger. Performed the experiments: V. Dugan, R. Chen, D. Spiro, N. Sengamalay, J. Zaborsky, E. Ghedin, J. Nolting, D. Senne, R. Wang, R. Slemons, J. Taubenberger. Analyzed the data: V. Dugan, R. Chen, D. Senne, R. Slemons, E. Holmes, J. Taubenberger. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: D. Swayne, J. Runstadler, G. Happ, R. Slemons. Wrote the paper: V. Dugan, R. Chen, R. Slemons, E. Holmes, J. Taubenberger.