About the Authors

Natalia A. Ilyushina

Affiliations Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America, Laboratory of Virus Physiology, The D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology RAMS, Moscow, Russia

Elena A. Govorkova

Affiliation Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America

Thomas E. Gray

Affiliation Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America

Nicolai V. Bovin

Affiliation Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry, Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow, Russia

Robert G. Webster

robert.webster@stjude.org

Affiliations Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America, Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Designed, coordinated, and conducted all the experiments, and contributed to manuscript preparation: NI. Supervised the experiments with NHBE cells: TG. Synthesized sialoglycoconjugates with different inner saccharide residues used in this study to characterize the receptor specificity of recombinant H5N1 viruses: NB. Supervised the entire project, designed and coordinated most of the experiments, and contributed to manuscript preparation: EG and RW.