About the Authors

Zsolt Tallóczy

Contributed equally to this work with: Zsolt Tallóczy, Jose Martinez

Affiliation Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Jose Martinez

Contributed equally to this work with: Zsolt Tallóczy, Jose Martinez

Affiliation Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

Danielle Joset

Affiliation Department of Physiology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Yonaton Ray

Affiliation Department of Physiology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Attila Gácser

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

Sima Toussi

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

Noboru Mizushima

Affiliation Department of Bioregulation and Metabolism, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Josh Nosanchuk

Affiliations Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America , Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

Harris Goldstein

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

John Loike

Affiliation Department of Physiology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

David Sulzer

Affiliations Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America , Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America , Department of Pharmacology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Laura Santambrogio

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: lsantamb@aecom.yu.edu

Affiliation Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The experiments were planned, performed, and analyzed jointly by ZT, JL, DS, and LS. JM, DJ, YR, AG, and ST performed the experiments. The GFP-LC3 mouse was constructed by NM. NM, JN, and HG contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. DS and LS conceived and designed the experiments. The paper was written by ZT, JL, DS, and LS.