About the Authors

Zsolt Tallóczy, David Sulzer
Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Jose Martinez, Laura Santambrogio
Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

Danielle Joset, Yonaton Ray, John Loike
Department of Physiology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Attila Gácser, Josh Nosanchuk
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

Sima Toussi, Josh Nosanchuk, Harris Goldstein
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

Noboru Mizushima
Department of Bioregulation and Metabolism, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

David Sulzer
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

David Sulzer
Department of Pharmacology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Author

lsantamb@aecom.yu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The experiments were planned, performed, and analyzed jointly by ZT, JL, DS, and LS. JM, DJ, YR, AG, and ST performed the experiments. The GFP-LC3 mouse was constructed by NM. NM, JN, and HG contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. DS and LS conceived and designed the experiments. The paper was written by ZT, JL, DS, and LS.