About the Authors

Shigeto Yoshida, Yohei Shimada, Daisuke Kondoh
Division of Medical Zoology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan

Yoshiaki Kouzuma
College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki, Japan

Anil K Ghosh, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Robert E Sinden
Infection and Immunity Section, Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

SY conceived and designed the experiments. All authors performed the experiments. SY, MJL, and RES analyzed the data and wrote the paper.