About the Authors

Frederick Arnaud

Affiliation Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

Marco Caporale

Affiliation Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

Mariana Varela

Affiliation Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

Roman Biek

Affiliation Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

Bernardo Chessa

Affiliation Sezione di Malattie Infettive del Dipartimento di Patologia e Clinica Veterinaria, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

Alberto Alberti

Affiliation Sezione di Malattie Infettive del Dipartimento di Patologia e Clinica Veterinaria, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

Matthew Golder

Affiliation Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

Manuela Mura

Affiliation Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

Ya-ping Zhang

Affiliation State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China

Li Yu

Affiliation Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, China

Filipe Pereira

Affiliations Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal , Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

James C DeMartini

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

Kreg Leymaster

Affiliation United States Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska, United States of America

Thomas E Spencer

Affiliation Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America

Massimo Palmarini

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: m.palmarini@vet.gla.ac.uk

Affiliation Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

FA, TES, and MP conceived and designed the experiments and wrote the paper. FA, MC, MV, RB, BC, MG, MM, and LY performed the experiments. FA, MC, MV, RB, BC, TES, and MP analyzed the data. AA, YPZ, FP, JCD, and KL contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.