About the Authors

Masato Hatta

Contributed equally to this work with: Masato Hatta, Yasuko Hatta

Affiliation Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Yasuko Hatta

Contributed equally to this work with: Masato Hatta, Yasuko Hatta

Affiliation Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Jin Hyun Kim

Affiliation Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Shinji Watanabe

Affiliation Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Kyoko Shinya

Affiliation The Avian Zoonosis Research Centre, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan

Tung Nguyen

Affiliation National Centre for Veterinary Diagnostics, Hanoi, Vietnam

Phuong Song Lien

Affiliation Vietnam Veterinary Association, Hanoi, Vietnam

Quynh Mai Le

Affiliation National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

Yoshihiro Kawaoka

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: kawaokay@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu

Affiliations Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America , Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan , Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

MH, YH, SW, and YK conceived and designed the experiments. MH, YH, JHK, SW, KS, and QML performed the experiments. TN and PSL provided reagents/materials/analysis tools. MH, YH, and JHK performed the cloning experiments. MH, YH, and YK analyzed the data and wrote the paper.