About the Authors

Toshihiko Suzuki

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: t-suzuki@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp (TS), bclx@umich.edu (GN)

Affiliation Division of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

Luigi Franchi

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Claudia Toma

Affiliation Division of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

Hiroshi Ashida

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Michinaga Ogawa

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Yuko Yoshikawa

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Hitomi Mimuro

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Naohiro Inohara

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Chihiro Sasakawa

Affiliations Department of Microbiology and Immunology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan , Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan , Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Japan

Gabriel Nuñez

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: t-suzuki@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp (TS), bclx@umich.edu (GN)

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

TS designed the research. TS, LF, CT, HA, MO, YY, and HM performed the research. TS, NI, CS, and GN analyzed the data. TS and GN wrote the paper.