About the Authors

Shin-Hong Shiao

Contributed equally to this work with: Shin-Hong Shiao, Miranda M. A Whitten

¤ Current address: Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, United States of America

Affiliation Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UPR9022 du CNRS, Équipe “Avenir” INSERM, Strasbourg, France

Miranda M. A Whitten

Contributed equally to this work with: Shin-Hong Shiao, Miranda M. A Whitten

Affiliation Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UPR9022 du CNRS, Équipe “Avenir” INSERM, Strasbourg, France

Daniel Zachary

Affiliation Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UPR9022 du CNRS, Équipe “Avenir” INSERM, Strasbourg, France

Jules A Hoffmann

Affiliation Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UPR9022 du CNRS, Équipe “Avenir” INSERM, Strasbourg, France

Elena A Levashina

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: e.levashina@ibmc.u-strasbg.fr

Affiliation Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UPR9022 du CNRS, Équipe “Avenir” INSERM, Strasbourg, France

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

SHS and EAL conceived and designed the experiments. SHS and MMAW performed the experiments. SHS, MMAW, and DZ analyzed the data. DZ and EAL contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. MMAW, JAH, and EAL wrote the paper.