About the Authors

Giovanna Rappocciolo

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: giovanna@pitt.edu

Affiliation Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Paolo Piazza

Affiliation Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Craig L Fuller

Address ¤ Current address: School of Health Sciences, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Todd A Reinhart

Affiliation Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Simon C Watkins

Affiliation Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

David T Rowe

Affiliation Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Mariel Jais

Affiliation Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Phalguni Gupta

Affiliations Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Charles R Rinaldo Jr.

Affiliations Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

GR and CRR conceived and designed the experiments. GR, PP, CLF, and MJ performed the experiments. TAR, SCW, DTR, and PG contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. GR and CRR analyzed the data and wrote the paper.