About the Authors

Dimitri A Diavatopoulos

Affiliations Laboratory for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands , Eijkman Winkler Institute, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands

Craig A Cummings

Affiliations Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America , VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

Leo M Schouls

Affiliation Laboratory for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands

Mary M Brinig

Affiliations Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America , VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

David A Relman

Affiliations Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America , VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America , Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

Frits R Mooi

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: fr.mooi@rivm.nl

Affiliations Laboratory for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands , Eijkman Winkler Institute, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DAD and FRM conceived and designed the experiments. DAD performed the experiments. DAD, CAC, LMS, and MMB analyzed the data. CAC and LMS contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. DAD, CAC, LMS, DAR, and FRM wrote the paper.