Background and purpose
Although high leptin concentration has been shown to be correlated with established vascular risk factors, epidemiologic studies have reported inconclusive results on the association between leptin and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this issue.
We searched Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to Jan 2016 for both case-control and cohort studies that assessed leptin concentration and CVD risk. Reports with odds ratio (OR), risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were considered. The data were extracted by two investigators independently.
A total of 13 epidemiologic studies totaling 4257 CVD patients and 26710 controls were included. A significant inverse association was shown between leptin and coronary heart disease (CHD), with an overall OR of 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.32), but not for stroke (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.98–1.48) under sociodemographic adjustment. Further adjustment for additional cardiovascular risk factors resulted in ORs of 1.16 (95% CI 0.97–1.40) for CHD and 1.10 (95% CI 0.89–1.35) for stroke. The findings remained when analyses were restricted to high-quality studies and indicated OR estimates of 1.07 (95% CI 0.96–1.19) for CHD and 0.98 (95% CI 0.76–1.25) for stroke. In a subgroup meta-analysis, a high leptin level was not independently associated with CHD in both females (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.86–1.23) and males (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.95–1.26) or with stroke in both females (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.87–1.47) and males (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.59–1.09). There was no significant publication bias as suggested by Egger test outcomes.
Citation: Yang H, Guo W, Li J, Cao S, Zhang J, Pan J, et al. (2017) Leptin concentration and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0166360. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166360
Editor: Margaret M. DeAngelis, University of Utah, UNITED STATES
Received: March 9, 2016; Accepted: October 27, 2016; Published: March 9, 2017
Copyright: © 2017 Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
Funding: This work was supported by grant 81571947 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (to Dr. Shui-jun Zhang). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, remains the leading cause of death and has become the most prominent health problem in developed and developing countries [1–4]. In recent decades, exploring risk factors for CHD and stoke and finding ways to reverse this global problem have aroused particular attention. Obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide and has been recognized as an important risk factor for CHD and stroke [5, 6]. It is hypothesized that adipokines, proteins secreted by adipocytes, possibly mediate the effects of obesity on the risk of CVD in the underlying biological mechanism [7–11].
Leptin, an adipokine hormone, plays an important role in neuroendocrine function and metabolic processes [12, 13]. Levels of leptin in humans increase with obesity and are higher in females than in males . Existing studies have indicated that a potential role of leptin on CVD risk factors includes blood pressure regulation, insulin sensitivity, glucose regulation, fatty acid catabolism, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, and inflammatory vascular responses [15–20]. However, the association between high leptin concentration and risk of CVD is controversial. A published meta-analysis, comprising eight nested case-control studies with a total of 1980 CVD patients and 11567 participants, indicated a significant association between leptin and pathogenetic risk of CHD and stroke . In contrast, the latest research studies did not find the same association [22–24]. Given the inconsistency of prior results, we performed an updated meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between high leptin concentration and risk of CVD.
A systematic search using electronic databases including Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library with no language restrictions was performed for articles published before Jan 2016. The search terms used were (“cardiovascular diseases” OR “stroke” OR “coronary disease” OR “myocardial infarction” OR “CHD”) AND (“leptin” OR “LEP” OR “obese protein” OR “obese gene product” OR “adipokine” OR “adipocytokine”). Review articles and reference lists based upon these articles were manually obtained to identify additional pertinent studies.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
The following inclusion criteria were used for the study selection:(1) evaluation of leptin with risk of CHD or stroke;(2) study design using a case-control study or cohort study;(3)odds ratio (OR), risk ratio (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were reported. In addition, studies were excluded if CHD or stroke patients were included in the baseline population and all relevant reviews, reports, letters and used overlapping data were published by the same first author.
Two investigators (HY and SC) individually assessed potentially relevant articles for eligibility. The following data were extracted for included studies: study characteristics (the first author’s name and year of publication), participant characteristics (country of origin, sample size, mean age or age range, and gender), leptin assessment, duration of follow-up, type of outcome (CHD or stroke), analysis strategy and results (including data to calculate its precision, such as 95% CI, standard error, or P values).
Methodological quality assessment
Two reviewers (JP and JZ) independently assessed the study quality according to the scale of the Newcastle-Ottawa, including the selection of study groups, comparability of groups, and ascertainment of either the exposure or outcome of interest for case-control or cohort studies. The high-quality study was defined as a study with ≥7 awarded stars.
The included studies reported RR for cohort studies and OR for case-control studies. These two values were assumed to be approximately equal. Heterogeneity among studies was conducted by I2 statistic and χ2 test . If the value was less than 0.10 and I2 exceeded 50%, then we considered there to be substantial heterogeneity and a random-effect model was applied to pool the data. Otherwise, a fixed-effect model was used. Egger’s test was used to evaluate publication bias. P<0.05 for Egger’s tests was considered to be representative of a significant statistical publication bias.
The flow diagram summarizing the process of the study search and selection is shown in Fig 1. A total of 4657 relevant studies were identified from the initial literature search, 90 of which appeared to be relevant to the meta-analysis following the subsequent selection. After careful screening and independent selection, thirteen eligible studies met all the inclusion criteria [24, 26–37], including five studies exploring the association between leptin and risk of CHD, four studies for stroke and four studies for both.
The detailed characteristics of these studies are summarized in Table 1. A total of 26710 participants were included in the final analysis, with sample sizes ranging from 140 to 6502 in individual studies. Eleven of the included studies were nested case-control studies and two were case-control studies. These studies were published between 1998 and 2015. Seven were conducted in Europe, five in the U.S.A. and one in Asia. Ages of the participants ranged from 20 years to over 90. Nearly all included studies adjusted for sociodemographics (age, race and town), and common cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, lipids, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and body mass index).
Correlation analyses between leptin and CHD
Seven studies provided sociodemographics-adjusted data on the risk of CHD from leptin. Meta-analysis with a random-effect model indicated that leptin could significantly increase the risk of CHD (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.02–1.32; P for heterogeneity = 0.06, I2 = 46%) (S1 Fig). However, we found no association after further adjustment for other established cardiovascular risk factors in nine studies (OR = 1.16,95% CI = 0.97–1.40), and a random-effect model was applied for its homogeneous outcome (P for heterogeneity = 0.0002, I2 = 69%)(Fig 2). A further analysis was performed by excluding the two case-control studies, and this did not change the results (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.88–1.19; P for heterogeneity = 0.06, I2 = 46%)(S2 Fig). Moreover, analysis restricted to cardiovascular risk factors-adjusted data of high methodological quality (≥7 on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) was consistent with the findings (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.96–1.19; P for heterogeneity = 0.33, I2 = 13%) (Fig 3). In a subgroup meta-analysis, a high leptin level was not independently associated with CHD in females (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.86–1.23) or males (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.95–1.26) (Fig 4).
Association of leptin and risk of CHD, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors*. *All studies were adjusted for a minimum of smoking status, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, except the studies of Liu JK, which did not adjust for lipids.
Association of leptin and risk of CHD in high methodological quality studies, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors*. *All studies were adjusted for a minimum of smoking status, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, except the studies of Liu JK, which did not adjust for lipids.
Gender difference of the association between leptin and risk of CHD, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors*. *All studies were adjusted for a minimum of smoking status, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, except the studies of Liu JK, which did not adjust for lipids.
Correlation analyses between leptin and stroke
Six studies provided sociodemographic-adjusted data on the risk of stroke and leptin. Meta-analysis using a random-effect model indicated that the risk of stroke did not increase in patients with high leptin (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.98–1.48; P for heterogeneity = 0.006, I2 = 63%) (S3 Fig). Similarly, the results remained the same after further adjustment for other established cardiovascular risk factors (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.89–1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.03, I2 = 48%) (Fig 5) and after excluding the case-control study (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.91–1.17; P for heterogeneity = 0.04, I2 = 48%) (S4 Fig). A further analysis was restricted to cardiovascular risk factors-adjusted data of high methodological quality (≥7 on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) and is consistent with the findings (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.76–1.25; P for heterogeneity = 0.06, I2 = 50%) (Fig 6). In a subgroup meta-analysis, a high leptin level was not independently associated with stroke in females (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.87–1.47) or males (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.59–1.09) (Fig 7).
Association of leptin and risk of stroke, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors*. *All studies were adjusted for a minimum of smoking status, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, except the studies of Liu JK, which did not adjust for lipids.
Association of leptin and risk of stroke in high methodological quality studies, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors*. *All studies were adjusted for a minimum of smoking status, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, except the studies of Liu JK, which did not adjust for lipids.
Gender difference of the association between leptin and risk of stroke, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors*. *All studies were adjusted for a minimum of smoking status, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, except the studies of Liu JK, which did not adjust for lipids.
This study reviewed and analyzed the results of thirteen studies investigating the effect of high leptin on the risks of developing CHD and stroke. Sociodemographic-adjusted studies indicated that high leptin was associated with an increased risk of CHD instead of stroke. After adjusting other established cardiovascular risk factors, they were not statistically significant both for CHD and stroke. Moreover, the result was consistent with cardiovascular risk factors-adjusted studies of high methodological quality.
A causal relation between leptin and CVD is not clear, although high leptin levels have been shown to be correlated with enhancing platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis  and promoting angiogenesis . Furthermore, leptin was reported to modulate inflammatory responses [39, 40] and induce proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells [41, 42]. However, the results of the research studying the association of leptin with CHD and stroke are inconsistent. In a recent prospective nested case-control study among 7051 population-based males and females within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), leptin levels were not associated with an increased 7.6-year risk of CVD events . Similarly, results from another prospective nested case-control study suggested no association between serum leptin levels and risk of CVD among 6502 population-based participants within the Inter 99 study cohort during a mean follow-up time of 11.4 years . However, in a 4-year follow-up of the Jackson Heart Study with 5170 participants, there is a significant association between leptin and stroke in women. One previous study including 1160 men showed leptin may be a novel, independent risk factor for CHD .
In our meta-analysis, a high baseline leptin level was not prospectively associated with CVD incidence in multivariable adjusted models, which was consistent with previous meta-analysis. Naveed Sattar et al. also failed to demonstrate a statistically significant association between leptin and CHD . Moreover, in a meta-analysis of prior studies between leptin and stroke, the combined risk ratio across all studies was 1.09 (95% CI, 0.87–1.37) in the adjusted analyses . It is reported that leptin levels increase with obesity and correlate significantly with body fat percentage and that the association with CVD may be partly influenced by genetic factors . We conducted a further subgroup meta-analysis according to gender classification and the results remain as not statistically significant. Therefore, we inferred that leptin, as an acute response to stress or CVD, may not be causally linked to the risk of CVD and may just reflect a state of hypothalamic leptin resistance in obesity and one of the co-occurrences of multiple vascular risk factors with obesity.
There are certain limitations of our study. First, there was some heterogeneity among the studies in terms of sample size, duration of observation, number of events, and difference in criteria of a high leptin level. This heterogeneity may lead to a reduced statistical power for detecting a possible association between leptin level and CVD. Second, the adjustment for BMI in our analysis may potentially be “over-adjustment”. However, there were limited studies adjusting for all the common risk factors of CVD except for BMI. In addition, we evaluate leptin as a risk factor for CVD independent of obesity while accounting for other obesity effects. Third, we should be cautious interpreting the results because our studies were based on case-control studies and nested case-control studies, and these cannot yield causal relationships. Additional high-quality prospective cohort studies are needed to produce more reliable conclusions between the association of leptin and risk of CVD.
In summary, the results of our meta-analysis indicated that leptin may not be associated with the risk of CVD. Studies based on larger well-designed prospective populations are still needed to clarify the causal relationship.
S1 Checklist. PRISMA Checklist.
S1 Data. Raw data of the present study.
S1 File. List of excluded full-text articles and reasons for exclusion.
S1 Fig. Forest plots of risk difference between leptin levels and CHD, adjusted for sociodemographics.
Association of leptin and risk of CHD, adjusted for cardiovascular sociodemographics *. *All studies were adjusted for age, race and town.
S2 Fig. Forest plots of risk difference between leptin levels and CHD, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors in nested case-control studies.
Association of leptin and risk of CHD in nested case-control studies, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors*. *All studies were adjusted for a minimum of smoking status, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, except the studies of Liu JK, which did not adjust for lipids.
S3 Fig. Forest plots of risk difference between leptin levels and stroke, adjusted for sociodemographics.
Association of leptin and risk of stroke, adjusted for cardiovascular sociodemographics *. *All studies were adjusted for age, race and town.
S4 Fig. Forest plots of risk difference between leptin levels and stroke, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors in nested case-control studies.
Association of leptin and risk of stroke in nested case-control studies, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors*. *All studies were adjusted for a minimum of smoking status, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, except the studies of Liu JK, which did not adjust for lipids.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
- Conceptualization: SZ WG.
- Data curation: JZ JP.
- Formal analysis: ZW PW XS.
- Methodology: HY SC.
- Project administration: SZ.
- Software: XS.
- Supervision: WG.
- Writing – original draft: HY WG.
- Writing – review & editing: JL SZ.
- 1. Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, et al. Executive Summary: Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2016 Update A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;133(4):447–54. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000366. pmid:26811276
- 2. Bhatnagar P, Wickramasinghe K, Williams J, Rayner M, Townsend N. The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in the UK 2014. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2015;101(15):1182–9. Epub 2015/06/05. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4515998.
- 3. Waters AM, Trinh L, Chau T, Bourchier M, Moon L. Latest statistics on cardiovascular disease in Australia. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2013;40(6):347–56. Epub 2013/03/23.
- 4. Yang F, Qian D, Hu D, Hou M, Chen S, Wang P, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering in Chinese adults. Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology. 2016;15:1–6.
- 5. Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, Danaei G, Lin JK, Paciorek CJ, et al. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet (London, England). 2011;377(9765):557–67. Epub 2011/02/08. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4472365.
- 6. Lu Y, Hajifathalian K, Ezzati M, Woodward M, Rimm EB, Danaei G. Metabolic mediators of the effects of body-mass index, overweight, and obesity on coronary heart disease and stroke: a pooled analysis of 97 prospective cohorts with 1.8 million participants. Lancet (London, England). 2014;383(9921): 970–83. Epub 2013/11/26. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3959199.
- 7. Van de Voorde J, Pauwels B, Boydens C, Decaluwe K. Adipocytokines in relation to cardiovascular disease. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2013;62(11):1513–21. Epub 2013/07/23.
- 8. Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, De Block CE. Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Nature. 2006;444(7121):875–80. Epub 2006/12/15. doi: 10.1038/nature05487. pmid:17167476
- 9. Cao H. Adipocytokines in obesity and metabolic disease. The Journal of endocrinology. 2014; 220(2):T47–59. Epub 2014/01/10. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3887367. doi: 10.1530/JOE-13-0339. pmid:24403378
- 10. Mattu HS, Randeva HS. Role of adipokines in cardiovascular disease. The Journal of endocrinology. 2013;216(1):T17–36. Epub 2012/11/20. doi: 10.1530/JOE-12-0232. pmid:23160967
- 11. Golia E, Limongelli G, Natale F, Fimiani F, Maddaloni V, Russo PE, et al. Adipose tissue and vascular inflammation in coronary artery disease. World journal of cardiology. 2014;6(7):539–54. Epub 2014 / 07/30. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc 4110603. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v6.i7.539. pmid:25068015
- 12. Rondinone CM. Adipocyte-derived hormones, cytokines, and mediators. Endocrine. 2006;29(1): 81–90. Epub 2006/04/20. doi: 10.1385/ENDO:29:1:181. pmid:16622295
- 13. Elmquist JK, Maratos-Flier E, Saper CB, Flier JS. Unraveling the central nervous system pathways underlying responses to leptin. Nature neuroscience. 1998;1(6):445–50. Epub 1999/04/10. doi: 10.1038/2164. pmid:10196541
- 14. Blum WF, Englaro P, Hanitsch S, Juul A, Hertel NT, Muller J, et al. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents: dependence on body mass index, body fat mass, gender, pubertal stage, and testosterone. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 1997;82(9):2904–10. Epub 1997/ 09/01. doi: 10.1210/jcem.82.9.4251. pmid:9284717
- 15. Nakata M, Yada T, Soejima N, Maruyama I. Leptin promotes aggregation of human platelets via the long form of its receptor. Diabetes. 1999;48(2):426–9. Epub 1999/05/20. pmid:10334326
- 16. Bigalke B, Stellos K, Geisler T, Seizer P, Mozes V, Gawaz M. High plasma levels of adipocytokines are associated with platelet activation in patients with coronary artery disease. Platelets. 2010;21(1):11–9. Epub 2009/12/04. doi: 10.3109/09537100903377584. pmid:19954410
- 17. Jun JY, Ma Z, Pyla R, Segar L. Leptin treatment inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis by attenuating hypercholesterolemia in type 1 diabetic Ins2(+/Akita):apoE(-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis. 2012;225(2):341–7. Epub 2012/10/27. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3502687. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.10.031. pmid:23099119
- 18. Anagnostoulis S, Karayiannakis AJ, Lambropoulou M, Efthimiadou A, Polychronidis A, Simopoulos C. Human leptin induces angiogenesis in vivo. Cytokine. 2008;42(3):353–7. Epub 2008/05/02. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2008.03.009. pmid:18448353
- 19. Ouchi N, Kihara S, Arita Y, Okamoto Y, Maeda K, Kuriyama H, et al. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, inhibits endothelial NF-kappaB signaling through a cAMP- dependent pathway. Circulation. 2000;102(11):1296–301. Epub 2000/09/12. pmid:10982546
- 20. O'Rourke L, Gronning LM, Yeaman SJ, Shepherd PR. Glucose-dependent regulation of cholesterol ester metabolism in macrophages by insulin and leptin. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002;277(45):42557–62. Epub 2002/08/30. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M202151200. pmid:12200416
- 21. Zeng R, Xu CH, Xu YN, Wang YL, Wang M. Association of leptin levels with pathogenetic risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia. 2014;58(8):817–23. Epub 2014/12/04. pmid:25465603
- 22. Saber H, Himali JJ, Shoamanesh A, Beiser A, Pikula A, Harris TB, et al. Serum Leptin Levels and the Risk of Stroke The Framingham Study. Stroke. 2015;46(10):2881–5. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009463. pmid:26337973
- 23. Martin SS, Blaha MJ, Muse ED, Qasim AN, Reilly MP, Blumenthal RS, et al. Leptin and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Atherosclerosis. 2015;239(1):67–72. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.12.033. pmid:25574859
- 24. Seven E, Husemoen LL, Sehested TS, Ibsen H, Wachtell K, Linneberg A, et al. Adipocytokines, C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular disease: a population-based prospective study. PloS one. 2015;10(6):e0128987. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128987. pmid:26035431
- 25. Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. Bmj. 2003;327(7414):557–60. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557. pmid:12958120
- 26. Martin SS, Blaha MJ, Muse ED, Qasim AN, Reilly MP, Blumenthal RS, et al. Leptin and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Atherosclerosis. 2015;239(1): 67–72. Epub 2015/01/13. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4331218. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.12.033. pmid:25574859
- 27. Soderberg S, Ahren B, Jansson JH, Johnson O, Hallmans G, Asplund K, et al. Leptin is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. Journal of internal medicine. 1999;246(4):409–18. Epub 1999/12/03. pmid:10583712
- 28. Wallace AM, McMahon AD, Packard CJ, Kelly A, Shepherd J, Gaw A, et al. Plasma leptin and the risk of cardiovascular disease in the west of Scotland coronary prevention study (WOSCOPS). Circulation. 2001;104(25):3052–6. Epub 2001/12/19. pmid:11748099
- 29. Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Kelly A, Sattar N, Ebrahim S. Leptin and coronary heart disease risk: prospective case control study of British women. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2007;15(7):1694–701. Epub 2007/07/20.
- 30. Jose VJ, Mariappan P, George PV, Selvakumar , Selvakumar D. Serum leptin levels in acute myocardial infarction. Indian heart journal. 2005;57(1):39–43. Epub 2005/04/28. pmid:15852893
- 31. Sierra-Johnson J, Romero-Corral A, Lopez-Jimenez F, Gami AS, Sert Kuniyoshi FH, Wolk R, et al. Relation of increased leptin concentrations to history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the United States population. The American journal of cardiology. 2007;100(2):234–9. Epub 2007/07/17. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPm c2000836. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.02.088. pmid:17631076
- 32. Sattar N, Wannamethee G, Sarwar N, Chernova J, Lawlor DA, Kelly A, et al. Leptin and coronary heart disease: prospective study and systematic review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009;53(2):167–75. Epub 2009/01/10. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.09.035. pmid:19130985
- 33. Saber H, Himali JJ, Shoamanesh A, Beiser A, Pikula A, Harris TB, et al. Serum Leptin Levels and the Risk of Stroke: The Framingham Study. Stroke. 2015;46(10):2881–5. Epub 2015/09/05. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc 4589501. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009463. pmid:26337973
- 34. Rajpathak SN, Kaplan RC, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Cushman M, Rohan TE, McGinn AP, et al. Resistin, but not adiponectin and leptin, is associated with the risk of ischemic stroke among postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative. Stroke. 2011;42(7):1813–20. Epub 2011/05/07. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4 059356. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.607853. pmid:21546486
- 35. Liu J, Butler KR, Buxbaum SG, Sung JH, Campbell BW, Taylor HA. Leptinemia and its association with stroke and coronary heart disease in the Jackson Heart Study. Clinical endocrinology. 2010;72(1):32–7. Epub 2009/05/29. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2805061. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03627.x. pmid:19473179
- 36. Soderberg S, Stegmayr B, Stenlund H, Sjostrom LG, Agren A, Johansson L, et al. Leptin, but not adiponectin, predicts stroke in males. Journal of internal medicine. 2004;256(2):128–36. Epub 2004/07/20. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01351.x. pmid:15257725
- 37. Prugger C, Luc G, Haas B, Arveiler D, Machez E, Ferrieres J, et al. Adipocytokines and the risk of ischemic stroke: the PRIME Study. Annals of neurology. 2012;71(4):478–86. Epub 2012/04/24. doi: 10.1002/ana.22669. pmid:22522440
- 38. Sierra-Honigmann MR, Nath AK, Murakami C, Garcia-Cardena G, Papapetropoulos A, Sessa WC, et al. Biological action of leptin as an angiogenic factor. Science (New York, NY). 1998;281(5383):1683–6. Epub 1998/09/11.
- 39. Lord GM, Matarese G, Howard JK, Baker RJ, Bloom SR, Lechler RI. Leptin modulates the T-cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immunosuppression. Nature. 1998;394(6696): 897–901. Epub 1998/09/11. doi: 10.1038/29795. pmid:9732873
- 40. Shamsuzzaman AS, Winnicki M, Wolk R, Svatikova A, Phillips BG, Davison DE, et al. Independent association between plasma leptin and C-reactive protein in healthy humans. Circulation. 2004;109(18):2181–5. Epub 2004/05/01. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000127960.28627.75. pmid:15117839
- 41. Huang F, Xiong X, Wang H, You S, Zeng H. Leptin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via regulating cell cycle, activating ERK1/2 and NF-kappaB. Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica. 2010;42(5):325–31. Epub 2010/05/12. pmid:20458445
- 42. Singh P, Hoffmann M, Wolk R, Shamsuzzaman AS, Somers VK. Leptin induces C-reactive protein expression in vascular endothelial cells. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2007;27(9): e302–7. Epub 2007/07/07. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.148353. pmid:17615382
- 43. Chai SB, Sun F, Nie XL, Wang J. Leptin and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. 2014;233(1):3–10. Epub 2014/02/18. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.11.069. pmid:24529114