Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is frequently observed in severe asthma but the causal link between the 2 diseases remains hypothetical. The role of OSA-related systemic and airway neutrophilic inflammation in asthma bronchial inflammation or remodelling has been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to compare hallmarks of inflammation in induced sputum and features of airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies from adult patients with severe asthma with and without OSA.
Materials and Methods
An overnight polygraphy was performed in 55 patients referred for difficult-to-treat asthma, who complained of nocturnal respiratory symptoms, poor sleep quality or fatigue. We compared sputum analysis, reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness, smooth muscle area, vascular density and inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchial biopsies.
In total, 27/55 patients (49%) had OSA diagnosed by overnight polygraphy. Despite a moderate increase in apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI; 14.2±1.6 event/h [5–35]), the proportion of sputum neutrophils was higher and that of macrophages lower in OSA than non-OSA patients, with higher levels of interleukin 8 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. The RBM was significantly thinner in OSA than non-OSA patients (5.8±0.4 vs. 7.8±0.4 μm, p<0.05). RBM thickness and OSA severity assessed by the AHI were negatively correlated (rho = -0.65, p<0.05). OSA and non-OSA patients did not differ in age, sex, BMI, lung function, asthma control findings or treatment.
Citation: Taillé C, Rouvel-Tallec A, Stoica M, Danel C, Dehoux M, Marin-Esteban V, et al. (2016) Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Modulates Airway Inflammation and Remodelling in Severe Asthma. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0150042. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150042
Editor: Stelios Loukides, University of Athens, GREECE
Received: June 26, 2015; Accepted: February 8, 2016; Published: March 2, 2016
Copyright: © 2016 Taillé et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information file.
Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Abbreviations: AHI, apnoea-hypopnoea index; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea; RBM, reticular basement membrane; SDB, sleep-disordered breathing; VEGF, vascular-endothelial growth factor; PDGF-BB, platelet-derived growth factor-BB; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase-9
Severe asthma is a morbid condition, affecting about 3.6% to 10% of people with asthma. The probability of OSA is high for 26% of patients with severe asthma . When evaluated by overnight polysomnography, OSA prevalence (defined by apnoea-hypopnoea index [AHI] ≥15 events/h) is 88% in patients with severe asthma and 58% in those with moderate asthma . Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is considered to contribute to asthma exacerbation , daytime and night-time asthma symptoms [3, 4] and poor quality of life . The relationship may be bidirectional, because asthma may also affect the occurrence of OSA .
Despite the well-described association between asthma and OSA, the mechanisms that link the 2 diseases remain hypothetical. Obesity or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may have a role, with reciprocal interactions. Recently, the role of OSA-associated changes in airway inflammation and remodelling has been suggested: in ovalbumin-sensitized rats, chronic intermittent hypoxia modulated both inflammation (by decreasing eosinophil proportion) and remodelling in distal airways . In humans, OSA is associated with increased prevalence of neutrophilic pattern in the sputum . These data suggest that bronchial and/or systemic inflammation related to OSA or intermittent hypoxia may affect bronchial inflammation and remodelling in asthma involving neutrophils, as was described in the cardiovascular system  and in upper airways .
The aim of this study was to compare features of airway inflammation and remodelling in both induced sputum and bronchial biopsies from patients with severe asthma with and without OSA.
Materials and Methods
The study was prospectively conducted in adult patients referred to our Severe Asthma Clinic who were consecutively recruited during a 12-month period. The asthma diagnosis was confirmed by 2 pulmonary physicians trained in difficult-to-treat asthma. All patients with severe uncontrolled asthma according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines and who complained of nocturnal respiratory symptoms (snoring, nocturnal asthma), poor sleep quality and/or diurnal symptoms (fatigue or sleepiness) were enrolled in a sleep study. Patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment at the time of the initial appointment and smokers or ex-smokers (>10 packs/year) were excluded. Fibre-optic bronchoscopy and induced sputum analysis are routinely performed for patients with severe asthma in our centre and are proposed to all patients investigated for difficult-to-treat asthma.
Asthma control was evaluated by the Asthma Control Test. Atopy was defined as a positive skin prick test result and/or positive for specific IgE in the blood. Nasal polyposis was diagnosed by a laryngologist. Diabetes, depression and hypertension were considered if specific treatment was required. Data from the visit closest to the night recording were used.
All patients gave written informed consent for follow-up in the COBRA cohort (Cohorte Obstruction Bronchique et Asthme) according to the procedure validated by the local Ethics Committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes d’Ile de France), which approved the study. Consent is usually retained in the patient’s medical file.
2. Overnight polygraphy
Nocturnal polygraphy was performed with a portable, computerised data-acquisition system (Embletta, ResMed, Saint-Priest, France). The system records oronasal airflow from nasal pressure (nasal flow) and a mouth thermistor (oral flow), chest and abdominal effort by inductance plethysmography, pulse oximetry, snoring, actimetry and body position . Recording was performed in the hospital or at home, depending on the patient preference. In terms of trace quality, we considered only recordings of ≥ 4 h duration, with no missing traces. Scoring was performed manually, according to international recommendations.
Apnoea was defined as a decrease of > 90% in nasal airflow, lasting at least 10 s. Hypopnea was defined by ≥ 30% decrease in nasal flow associated with 4% desaturation (recommended definition) or ≥ 50% decrease associated with 3% desaturation or an arousal (alternate definition), as previously described .
The number of apnoea-hypopnoea events per hour (AHI) was determined after the exclusion of periods with movements, considered periods of wakefulness. Sleep-disordered breathing was diagnosed as AHI ≥ 5/h. Nocturnal polygraphy was performed at least 2 weeks after recovery from any asthma exacerbation or intervention. The Epworth score and depression score (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression, CES-D) were collected. The 20 items in the CES-D scale measure symptoms of depression in 9 different groups on a scale from “0” (not at all or less than one day) to “3” (nearly every day). A total score ≥ 17 for men and ≥ 24 for women indicates depression symptoms. Fatigue was measured by the Pichot questionnaire , consisting of 8 questions on fatigue scored progressively from "0" (not at all) to "4" (extremely). A value ≥ 20 indicates fatigue.
3. Fibre-optic bronchoscopy and airway remodelling assessment
Four biopsies were collected for each patient during fibre-optic bronchoscopy as described . Biopsies were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into 5-μm sections. Computer-assisted image analysis was used to assess reticular basement membrane thickness (RBM, in micrometres). In addition, total biopsy and airway smooth muscle (ASM) area (in micrometres squared and percentage of total biopsy area, respectively) and number of vessels/μm2 were determined after α-actin and CD31 immunostaining, respectively. Eosinophil cationic protein (eosinophils), elastase (neutrophils), CD3 (lymphocytes) and tryptase (mast cells) were detected in bronchial submucosa by immunohistochemistry with the alkaline phosphatase method, and stained cells were counted were measured in a zone of 60-μm depth along the length of the basement membrane.
Induced sputum was analyzed, and macrophages, eosinophils and neutrophils were counted as described . In addition, we measured interleukin 5 (IL-5), IL-4, IL-8, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels by using a multiplex analyser (Milliplex, Merck Millipore, France), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Elastase activity was quantified with an enzymatic kinetic method .
4. Statistical analysis
Data were analysed by using GraphPad Prism 5.01 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA) and are expressed as number (%) or mean±SEM and range. Comparisons between 2 groups involved the Mann–Whitney test and Kruskall–Wallis test for continuous variables. Pearson chi-square test was used for comparing categorical variables. Univariate correlation (Spearman's rank-order method) was used for correlation analysis. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Original data are available as an Excel file in S1 Original Data.
1. Patient characteristics
In total, 55 patients consecutively referred for difficult-to-treat asthma and complaining of nocturnal symptoms, underwent overnight polygraphy (Table 1). All had severe uncontrolled asthma despite high doses of inhaled steroids associated with a long-acting beta-agonist. Patients were mainly overweight women with late-onset asthma and minimally impaired lung function. About one third were obese. Almost half had atopic disease. A total of 23% (13/55) required daily oral steroid treatment. The mean Epworth score was 11.4±0.8 and mean Pichot score 20.4±1.2 (Table 2).
2. OSA prevalence and characteristics
Nocturnal polygraphy was performed in the hospital for 15 patients (9 non-OSA and 6 OSA) and at home for 40. Patient characteristics did not differ by the location of testing. In total, 27/55 patients (49%) had OSA. Among them, 9 patients (33%) had AHI ≥15/h and 3 had AHI ≥30/h (Table 2). All patients, even those without OSA, showed oxygen desaturation during the night, but, as expected, SpO2 value was significantly lower for OSA than non-OSA patients. The Epworth score and depression score did not differ between OSA and non-OSA patients. The proportion of patients with Epworth score ≥11 was similar in the 2 groups. The mean Pichot fatigue score was higher for OSA than non-OSA patients (p = 0.006) and the proportion with a Pichot score ≥20 was higher for OSA patients (p = 0.04).
OSA and non-OSA patients did not differ in age, sex ratio, BMI, lung function, asthma control test or treatments (Table 1), except for age at onset of disease, which was higher in patients with OSA. The frequency of GERD symptoms did not differ between OSA and non-OSA patients (78% and 68%, respectively), and the proportion of anti-reflux therapy was similar in both groups. The proportion of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease was significantly higher for OSA than non-OSA patients. Atopic disease was more frequent for non-OSA than OSA patients (78.5% vs 26%, p<0.001), as was chronic rhinitis (p = 0.005). Antihistamine drug use was more frequent for non-OSA than OSA patients.
3. OSA is associated with specific remodelling and airway neutrophilic inflammation
A total of 31 patients underwent fibre-optic fibroscopy and bronchial biopsies. Reasons for not performing these tests are in Fig 1. These patients did not differ from those who did not undergo endoscopy in terms of age, sex, BMI, asthma-associated diseases or AHI. ASM area and number of vascular sections were similar for OSA and non-OSA patients. The RBM was significantly thinner for OSA than non-OSA patients (Table 3). The number of eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes in biopsies was similar between the 2 groups, despite the number of neutrophils being higher, although not significantly, in OSA than non-OSA patients (Table 3). Macrophages were not quantified.
Among patients who had fibre-optic bronchoscopy, 29 underwent induced sputum analysis (Fig 1). Induced sputum was of poor quality in 4 cases, with squamous cell contamination or evidence for bacterial infection, and was excluded from subsequent analyses. OSA and non-OSA patients had a high but similar proportion of eosinophils and lymphocytes in sputum, but the proportion of neutrophils was higher and that of macrophages lower for OSA than non-OSA patients (Table 4).
OSA patients showed a higher proportion of neutrophils along with higher IL-8 level in sputum as compared with non-OSA patients, but IL-5 and VEGF levels were higher in non-OSA than OSA patients (Table 4). As expected sputum neutrophil proportion was correlated with IL-8 level (rho = 0.68, p = 0.0076) but not VEFG or PDGF levels. The proportion of eosinophils was correlated with IL-5 level (rho = 0.67, p = 0.0063).
Elastase activity in sputum was low (under the detection level in many patients) and did not differ between the OSA groups. MMP-9 level in sputum was higher in OSA than non-OSA patients (Table 4) and was correlated only with IL-8 level (rho = 0.8, p<0.001) but not RBM thickness or neutrophils.
RBM thickness was not correlated with eosinophil or neutrophil proportion in sputum or biopsies but was negatively correlated with OSA severity, as assessed by AHI (rho = -0.65, p<0.05) (Fig 2). In addition, AHI was correlated with IL-8 level (rho = 0.72, p = 0.006). No other correlation was found between other sleep indices (mean SpO2, minimal SpO2, desaturation index) and other features of remodelling (vessels, smooth muscle area) or inflammation assessed in sputum or biopsies.
Using induced sputum and bronchial biopsies, we found that OSA in patients with severe asthma is associated with specific features of airway inflammation and remodelling. The disease was characterized by a higher proportion of neutrophils and a lower proportion of macrophages as compared with non-OSA patients, elevated levels of IL-8 and MMP-9 in sputum, and thinner bronchial basement membrane, which was inversely correlated with AHI, a measure of OSA severity. These data suggest that OSA, although mild in most patients with asthma, may modulate airway inflammation and remodelling in the disease.
The hallmark of neutrophilic inflammation in airways of OSA patients was previously reported in induced sputum and exhaled breath condensate [16–18] and associated with elevated IL-8 level . These features have all been associated with OSA severity in previous studies and confirmed in the present work. We recently demonstrated that airway epithelial cells, when exposed in vitro to chronic intermittent hypoxia, produce IL-8, contributing to neutrophil recruitment . Of note, delayed apoptosis and increased expression of adhesion molecules have been described in neutrophils from OSA patients . In asthma, increased number of bronchoalveolar lavage or sputum neutrophils is observed only in a subset of patients. This neutrophilic inflammation is associated with asthma severity, increased airflow obstruction and increased rate of asthma exacerbations  and contributes to steroid resistance and the pathophysiology of the disease by releasing MMP-9, elastase, leukotriene B4, and platelet-activating factor, which work to enhance the activity of eosinophils . Smokers and ex-smokers were excluded from our study because tobacco exposure can affect airway inflammation, especially increase the number of neutrophils . In asthma, epithelial cells generate pro-neutrophilic factors with chemotactic and apoptosis-delaying actions  . Therefore, intermittent hypoxia related to OSA can be another trigger that can induce and/or aggravate neutrophil recruitment into airways in asthma and contribute to increased asthma severity when associated with OSA .
OSA-related inflammation can drive tissue remodelling, mainly through increased oxidative stress. In the heart, atrial and ventricular remodelling is observed in OSA patients and can be reversed by continuous positive pressure. Myocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis and increased apoptosis are observed in animal models of chronic intermittent hypoxia . OSA patients can show strongly reduced connective tissue in the upper airways resulting in reduced anchorage between the epithelium and lamina propria , but data on lower airway remodelling in OSA are lacking. We observed thinner RBM in patients with asthma and OSA than in non-OSA patients. RBM thickening contributes to airway narrowing and fixed airway obstruction and is associated with steroid resistance . Increased RBM is thought to be secondary to both repeated bronchoconstriction  and eosinophilic inflammation [30, 31] because asthma patients without eosinophilic inflammation did not show increased RBM thickness. However, our observations suggest that neutrophils may counteract mechanisms leading to RBM thickening. We found higher MMP-9 level and neutrophil proportion in OSA than non-OSA patients, so the predominant neutrophilic inflammation could contribute to RBM degradation and thinner RBM in this group. However, the neutrophil count in sputum was not correlated with MMP-9 level or RBM thickness. Indeed, neutrophil count in the bronchial mucosa was higher but not significantly in OSA than non-OSA patients. A role of biopsy sampling cannot be excluded to explain why OSA and non-OSA patients differed in neutrophil count in sputum but not on biopsy. However, our hypothesis is supported by recent data in a model of chronic intermittent hypoxia in ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged rats. After 30 days, increased matrix degradation was observed in distal airways, associated with a change to a predominantly Th1 cellular phenotype . In this model, neutrophil number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid did not change, and the authors suggested a role of M2 macrophages in matrix deposition. Before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the mechanisms leading to changes in basement membrane thickness, we caution that our study was restricted to proximal airways and did not investigate the distal compartment as in the Broytman et al. study .
The last observation in our study that may be related to OSA-associated neutrophilic inflammation is the greater prevalence of hypertension and cerebrovascular diseases in severe asthmatics with OSA without OSA. The causal association between OSA and cardiovascular disease has been linked to oxidative stress and intermittent hypoxia-induced vascular inflammation  and characterised by neutrophil activation, decreased neutrophil apoptosis, high IL-8 level, and increased interactions between leukocyte and endothelial cells. This systemic low-grade inflammation may be in addition to the neutrophilic airway inflammation that we found in patients with asthma and OSA, to further increase the cardiovascular risk observed in these patients [33, 34], together with obesity, high dose of oral steroids and limited physical activity. Further studies are required to strengthen this association.
Together, all these findings support that patients with severe asthma with OSA may show a specific phenotype of neutrophilic asthma that needs to be identified to better target treatment. Indeed, increasing steroids doses may have a potential deleterious effect in the setting of neutrophilic /non-eosinophilic inflammation and should be cautioned in this setting. Steroids contribute to neutrophilic airway infiltration by decreasing neutrophil apoptosis, which could contribute to increased OSA risk in this population  and to increased OSA severity. OSA, in turn, contributes to the neutrophilic inflammation and therefore to steroid resistance and asthma severity, for a vicious cycle. Some data suggest that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in small series of asthma patients with moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI >15/h) improved asthma symptoms and quality of life . In our series, only 9 patients had OSA with AHI> 15/h, and 3 of these had AHI > 30/h. Whether CPAP could improve asthma control or airway inflammation in patients with severe asthma and mild OSA remains to be investigated.
The association between asthma and OSA is bidirectional, since asthma may contribute to OSA occurrence  and the two diseases share common risk factors , such as GERD  and obesity . In our series, a reciprocal relationship between GERD and OSA may be possible because patients in both groups complained of GERD symptoms with a similar prevalence. Our patients were not morbidly obese and the BMI in each group was similar, despite a higher BMI, although not significant, in patients with OSA than without OSA, which rules out a major role for obesity in the occurrence of OSA in our patients.
The contribution of nasal obstruction in airway obstruction during OSA has been suggested in patients without asthma  and with asthma . Surprisingly, we observed a lower prevalence of chronic rhinitis symptoms in OSA than non-OSA patients as well as a lower prevalence of patients receiving a nasal steroid spray and oral antihistamines. Because we did not assess rhinitis score, we cannot rule out that some OSA patients may have had persistent nasal obstruction that contributed to sleep-disordered breathing. The low prevalence of atopic disease in OSA patients is also intriguing. No relationship between OSA and atopy is known, but Tien et al. reported that OSA was associated with an increased and unexplained risk of atopic dermatitis . However, in an animal model of allergic asthma with ovalbumin-sensitized rats, chronic intermittent hypoxia suppressed baseline eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar fluid .
Our study contains some limitations. First not all severe asthmatics from our clinic were explored but only those who complained of nocturnal symptoms or symptoms usually related to poor sleep (nocturnal asthma symptoms, poor sleep quality, tiredness, sleepiness). OSA was diagnosed in about half of these patients with uncontrolled severe asthma. This rate of OSA is high as compared to the general population, especially considering that most of our patients were female, but the proportion was lower than in a previous study of patients with severe asthma [2, 43, 44]. This discrepancy could result from the use of polygraphy in our study rather than polysomnography. We excluded movement periods corresponding to awake periods from the analysis, which decreased this bias. Another possible explanation for the discrepancy is the higher proportion of women in our study.
To conclude, we demonstrate that OSA is associated with specific changes in airway inflammation associated with predominant neutrophilic inflammation with high levels of MMP-9 and IL-8 and low RBM thickness in patients with severe asthma. Whether CPAP, a specific treatment for this subgroup of patients, could affect these structural changes and therefore the asthma course remains to be investigated.
S1 Original Data. Orginal data are provided in an Excel data sheet.
We thank Bernadette Lescure (UMS INSERM UPMC, Hôpital St Antoine) for the multiplex analysis, Véronique Leçon-Malas (laboratoire de biochimie, Hôpital Bichat) for help in the sputum analysis and Laura Smales (BioMedEditing, Toronto, Canada) for English editing.
Conceived and designed the experiments: CT MPO. Performed the experiments: CT ART MS MD CD VME MPO. Analyzed the data: CT MPO. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MP MA. Wrote the paper: CT MPO.
- 1. Teodorescu M, Broytman O, Curran-Everett D, Sorkness RL, Crisafi G, Bleecker ER, et al. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk, Asthma Burden, and Lower Airway Inflammation in Adults in the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) II. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(4):566–75 e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2015.04.002 pmid:26004304; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4500672.
- 2. Julien JY, Martin JG, Ernst P, Olivenstein R, Hamid Q, Lemiere C, et al. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea in severe versus moderate asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(2):371–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.05.016 pmid:19560194.
- 3. Teodorescu M, Polomis DA, Teodorescu MC, Gangnon RE, Peterson AG, Consens FB, et al. Association of obstructive sleep apnea risk or diagnosis with daytime asthma in adults. J Asthma. 2012;49(6):620–8. Epub 2012/06/30. doi: 10.3109/02770903.2012.689408 pmid:22742082; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3626099.
- 4. Teodorescu M, Polomis DA, Gangnon RE, Consens FB, Chervin RD, Teodorescu MC. Sleep duration, asthma and obesity. J Asthma. 2013;50(9):945–53. Epub 2013/08/09. doi: 10.3109/02770903.2013.831871 pmid:23923994; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3828450.
- 5. Kim MY, Jo EJ, Kang SY, Chang YS, Yoon IY, Cho SH, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with reduced quality of life in adult patients with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013;110(4):253–7, 7 e1. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2013.01.005 pmid:23535088.
- 6. Teodorescu M, Barnet JH, Hagen EW, Palta M, Young TB, Peppard PE. Association between asthma and risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea. JAMA. 2015;313(2):156–64. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.17822 pmid:25585327; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4334115.
- 7. Broytman O, Braun RK, Morgan BJ, Pegelow DF, Hsu PN, Mei LS, et al. Effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on allergen-induced airway inflammation in rats. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;52(2):162–70. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2014-0213OC pmid:25004109.
- 8. Dumitrascu R, Heitmann J, Seeger W, Weissmann N, Schulz R. Obstructive sleep apnea, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease: lessons from animal studies. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:234631. doi: 10.1155/2013/234631 pmid:23533685; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3603718.
- 9. Bergeron C, Kimoff J, Hamid Q. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116(6):1393–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2005.10.008 pmid:16337480.
- 10. Dingli K, Coleman EL, Vennelle M, Finch SP, Wraith PK, Mackay TW, et al. Evaluation of a portable device for diagnosing the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Eur Respir J. 2003;21(2):253–9. pmid:12608438.
- 11. Cowie MR, Woehrle H, Wegscheider K, Angermann C, d'Ortho MP, Erdmann E, et al. Adaptive Servo-Ventilation for Central Sleep Apnea in Systolic Heart Failure. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(12):1095–105. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1506459 pmid:26323938.
- 12. Pichot P, Brun JP. Questionnaire bref d'auto-évaluation des dimensions dépressive, asthénique et anxieuse. Ann Mes-Psychol. 1984;142:862–5.
- 13. Benayoun L, Druilhe A, Dombret MC, Aubier M, Pretolani M. Airway structural alterations selectively associated with severe asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167(10):1360–8. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200209-1030OC pmid:12531777.
- 14. Ezratty V, Bonay M, Neukirch C, Orset-Guillossou G, Dehoux M, Koscielny S, et al. Effect of formaldehyde on asthmatic response to inhaled allergen challenge. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(2):210–4. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9414 pmid:17384766; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1817692.
- 15. Barrientos L, Marin-Esteban V, de Chaisemartin L, Le-Moal VL, Sandre C, Bianchini E, et al. An improved strategy to recover large fragments of functional human neutrophil extracellular traps. Front Immunol. 2013;4:166. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00166 pmid:23805143; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3690357.
- 16. Salerno FG, Carpagnano E, Guido P, Bonsignore MR, Roberti A, Aliani M, et al. Airway inflammation in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Respir Med. 2004;98(1):25–8. pmid:14959810.
- 17. Li AM, Hung E, Tsang T, Yin J, So HK, Wong E, et al. Induced sputum inflammatory measures correlate with disease severity in children with obstructive sleep apnoea. Thorax. 2007;62(1):75–9. doi: 10.1136/thx.2006.060657 pmid:16928708; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2111280.
- 18. Devouassoux G, Levy P, Rossini E, Pin I, Fior-Gozlan M, Henry M, et al. Sleep apnea is associated with bronchial inflammation and continuous positive airway pressure-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(3):597–603. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2006.11.638 pmid:17261329.
- 19. Philippe C, Boussadia Y, Pruliere-Escabasse V, Papon JF, Clerici C, Isabey D, et al. Airway cell involvement in intermittent hypoxia-induced airway inflammation. Sleep Breath. 2015;19(1):297–306. doi: 10.1007/s11325-014-1019-4 pmid:24993984.
- 20. Dyugovskaya L, Polyakov A, Lavie P, Lavie L. Delayed neutrophil apoptosis in patients with sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177(5):544–54. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200705-675OC pmid:18006889.
- 21. Simpson JL, Baines KJ, Ryan N, Gibson PG. Neutrophilic asthma is characterised by increased rhinosinusitis with sleep disturbance and GERD. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2014;32(1):66–74. doi: 10.12932/AP0322.214.171.1244 pmid:24641293.
- 22. Trevor JL, Deshane JS. Refractory asthma: mechanisms, targets, and therapy. Allergy. 2014;69(7):817–27. doi: 10.1111/all.12412 pmid:24773466; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4279947.
- 23. Chalmers GW, MacLeod KJ, Thomson L, Little SA, McSharry C, Thomson NC. Smoking and airway inflammation in patients with mild asthma. Chest. 2001;120(6):1917–22. pmid:11742922.
- 24. Uddin M, Lau LC, Seumois G, Vijayanand P, Staples KJ, Bagmane D, et al. EGF-induced bronchial epithelial cells drive neutrophil chemotactic and anti-apoptotic activity in asthma. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e72502. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072502 pmid:24039773; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3770689.
- 25. Uddin M, Nong G, Ward J, Seumois G, Prince LR, Wilson SJ, et al. Prosurvival activity for airway neutrophils in severe asthma. Thorax. 2010;65(8):684–9. doi: 10.1136/thx.2009.120741 pmid:20685741.
- 26. Chen L, Einbinder E, Zhang Q, Hasday J, Balke CW, Scharf SM. Oxidative stress and left ventricular function with chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172(7):915–20. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200504-560OC pmid:15976378.
- 27. Paulsen FP, Steven P, Tsokos M, Jungmann K, Muller A, Verse T, et al. Upper airway epithelial structural changes in obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166(4):501–9. Epub 2002/08/21. doi: 10.1164/rccm.2109099 pmid:12186828.
- 28. Bourdin A, Neveu D, Vachier I, Paganin F, Godard P, Chanez P. Specificity of basement membrane thickening in severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(6):1367–74. Epub 2007/05/08. doi: S0091-6749(07)00450-2 [pii] doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2007.01.055 pmid:17481707.
- 29. Grainge CL, Lau LC, Ward JA, Dulay V, Lahiff G, Wilson S, et al. Effect of bronchoconstriction on airway remodeling in asthma. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(21):2006–15. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1014350 pmid:21612469.
- 30. Wenzel SE, Schwartz LB, Langmack EL, Halliday JL, Trudeau JB, Gibbs RL, et al. Evidence that severe asthma can be divided pathologically into two inflammatory subtypes with distinct physiologic and clinical characteristics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160(3):1001–8. Epub 1999/09/03. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.160.3.9812110 pmid:10471631.
- 31. Berry M, Morgan A, Shaw DE, Parker D, Green R, Brightling C, et al. Pathological features and inhaled corticosteroid response of eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma. Thorax. 2007;62(12):1043–9. Epub 2007/03/16. doi: thx.2006.073429 [pii] doi: 10.1136/thx.2006.073429 pmid:17356056; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2094295.
- 32. Lavie L. Oxidative stress—a unifying paradigm in obstructive sleep apnea and comorbidities. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;51(4):303–12. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2008.08.003 pmid:19110132.
- 33. Iribarren C, Tolstykh IV, Miller MK, Sobel E, Eisner MD. Adult asthma and risk of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and heart failure: a prospective study of 2 matched cohorts. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(11):1014–24. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws181 pmid:23139248.
- 34. Ferguson S, Teodorescu MC, Gangnon RE, Peterson AG, Consens FB, Chervin RD, et al. Factors associated with systemic hypertension in asthma. Lung. 2014;192(5):675–83. doi: 10.1007/s00408-014-9600-y pmid:24920421; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4543317.
- 35. Shen TC, Lin CL, Wei CC, Chen CH, Tu CY, Hsia TC, et al. Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adult Patients with Asthma: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0128461. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128461 pmid:26067280; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4466235.
- 36. Lafond C, Series F, Lemiere C. Impact of CPAP on asthmatic patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2007;29(2):307–11. Epub 2006/10/20. doi: 09031936.00059706 [pii] doi: 10.1183/09031936.00059706 pmid:17050561.
- 37. Prasad B, Nyenhuis SM, Weaver TE. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma: associations and treatment implications. Sleep Med Rev. 2014;18(2):165–71. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2013.04.004 pmid:23890469.
- 38. Emilsson OI, Bengtsson A, Franklin KA, Toren K, Benediktsdottir B, Farkhooy A, et al. Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux, asthma and symptoms of OSA: a longitudinal, general population study. Eur Respir J. 2013;41(6):1347–54. Epub 2012/09/29. doi: 09031936.00052512 [pii] doi: 10.1183/09031936.00052512 pmid:23018910.
- 39. Carpagnano GE, Foschino-Barbaro MP, Carratu P, Lacedonia D, Resta O. Could neutrophilic airway inflammation in obese people be more due to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome than to asthma? Eur Respir J. 2012;39(6):1547–9. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00184111 pmid:22654015.
- 40. Koutsourelakis I, Minaritzoglou A, Zakynthinos G, Vagiakis E, Zakynthinos S. The effect of nasal tramazoline with dexamethasone in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. Eur Respir J. 2013;42(4):1055–63. Epub 2013/02/12. doi: 09031936.00142312 [pii] doi: 10.1183/09031936.00142312 pmid:23397296.
- 41. Teodorescu M, Consens FB, Bria WF, Coffey MJ, McMorris MS, Weatherwax KJ, et al. Predictors of habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea risk in patients with asthma. Chest. 2009;135(5):1125–32. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-1273 pmid:18849401.
- 42. Tien KJ, Chou CW, Lee SY, Yeh NC, Yang CY, Yen FC, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of atopic dermatitis: a population-based case control study. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89656. Epub 2014/03/04. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089656 PONE-D-13-19630 [pii]. pmid:24586942; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3934912.
- 43. Yigla M, Tov N, Solomonov A, Rubin AH, Harlev D. Difficult-to-control asthma and obstructive sleep apnea. J Asthma. 2003;40(8):865–71. Epub 2004/01/23. pmid:14736085.
- 44. Kheirandish-Gozal L, Dayyat EA, Eid NS, Morton RL, Gozal D. Obstructive sleep apnea in poorly controlled asthmatic children: effect of adenotonsillectomy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2011;46(9):913–8. Epub 2011/04/06. doi: 10.1002/ppul.21451 pmid:21465680; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3156307.