Advertisement
Browse Subject Areas
?

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here.

  • Loading metrics

Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats

  • Masanori Katakura,

    Current address: Department of Nutritional Physiology, Josai University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1–1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama, Japan

    Affiliation Department of Environmental Physiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan

  • Michio Hashimoto ,

    michio1@med.shimane-u.ac.jp

    Affiliation Department of Environmental Physiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan

  • Takayuki Inoue,

    Affiliation Department of Environmental Physiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan

  • Abdullah Al Mamun,

    Affiliation Department of Environmental Physiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan

  • Yoko Tanabe,

    Affiliation Department of Environmental Physiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan

  • Makoto Arita,

    Affiliation Laboratory for Metabolomics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

  • Osamu Shido

    Affiliation Department of Environmental Physiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan

Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats

  • Masanori Katakura, 
  • Michio Hashimoto, 
  • Takayuki Inoue, 
  • Abdullah Al Mamun, 
  • Yoko Tanabe, 
  • Makoto Arita, 
  • Osamu Shido
PLOS
x

Abstract

Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney.

Introduction

Eicosanoids, metabolites derived from arachidonic acid (ARA), have well-established roles in renal physiological and pathophysiological functions [1]. Prostaglandin (PG) I2 and PGE2 play critical roles in maintaining blood pressure, renal function in a volume-contracted state, and renin secretion [2]. The physiological effects of each eicosanoid are controlled at synthesis and by interactions with its receptors. Therefore, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause fluid and electrolyte disorders, acute renal dysfunction, nephrotic syndrome/interstitial nephritis, and renal papillary necrosis [35]. These reports indicate that eicosanoids are important mediators formaintaining renal function.

In contrast, inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate ARA release from cell membrane phospholipids of the kidney. Huang et al. reported that interleukin (IL)-1 rapidly stimulates the release of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity-dependent ARA and activates mesangial cells via the Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) signaling pathway [6]. ROS activates renal mitochondrial PLA2 activity and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the kidney [7,8]. The effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on ion transport are related to the induction of COX-2-dependent PGE2 synthesis [9]. These results indicate that endogenous ARA released by inflammatory cytokines and ROS are involved in inflammatory processes in the kidney. Few data regarding whether exogenous ARA stimulates the release of inflammatory cytokines are available. Exogenous ARA but not eicosanoids increases IL-1-dependent ARA release by human embryonic kidney 293 cells via cPLA2 and sPLA2 [10]; moreover, ARA and its precursor, linoleic acid (LA), directly stimulates the JNK/SAPK pathway [6]. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo have not been reported because of difficulties in obtaining large quantities of purified ARA. We have assessed whether long-term administration of ARA could change normal renal function, inflammatory, and oxidative state in aged rats. It has been reported that aging is associated with structural and functional renal changes [11,12]. Inflammation has been reported to be a cause of reduced renal function with age [13,14]. Since ARA is known to be involved in inflammation processes as described above, the present study aimed to investigate whether ARA administration decreases kidney function in the aged rats via inflammation. Excess amounts of ARA-derived eicosanoids are known to be involved in inflammatory responses; meanwhile, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)- and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived metabolites have anti-inflammatory properties. We expected ARA administration to disrupt the balance among these metabolite profiles in the kidney. To assess this, we measured the levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS).

Materials and Methods

Ethics Statement

All animal experiments were conducted in strict accordance with procedures outlined in the Guidelines for Animal Experimentation of Shimane University, compiled from the Guidelines for Animal Experimentation of the Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science. The protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of the Shimane University.

Animals and treatments

Rats (Jcl: Wistar) purchased from CLEA Japan (Osaka, Japan) were housed in a room under controlled temperature (23 ± 2°C), humidity (50 ± 10%), and light–dark cycle (light: 07:00–19:00; dark: 19:00–07:00). They were fed a fish oil-deficient diet (F-1™ Funabashi Farm, Funabashi, Japan) and water ad libitum. Inbred second-generation male rats, fed the same F-1 diet, were used for our study. Fatty acid composition in the F-1 diet was described previously [15]. ARA oil was obtained from Cargill Alking Bioengineering (Wuhan and Hubei, China) [16,17]. The fatty acid compositions of the ARA and control oils are shown in Table 1. Twenty one-month-old male rats were divided into two groups: the control group was orally administrated with the control oil and the ARA group was administrated ARA oil (240 mg ARA/kg body weight/day) for 13 weeks. After a 16-h fast, rats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg body weight), following which their plasma, kidneys, and liver were removed, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −30°C until further use. The kidneys and liver were homogenized in phosphate buffer (pH, 7.4) using a Teflon homogenizer (AGC techno glass Co., Ltd. Shizuoka, Japan). The homogenates were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −30°C until use. Concentrations of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined in plasma samples using an automatic analyzer (BiOLiS 24i; Tokyo Boeki Medical System Ltd., Tokyo, Japan).

Analysis of fatty acid profiles

The fatty acid profiles of the plasma, and kidney, and liver homogenates were determined by gas chromatography, as described previously [18].

ROS and lipid peroxidation (LPO) measurement

ROS levels were measured as previously described previously [19]. Data are expressed as dichlorofluorescein production/min/mg protein. LPO levels were measured using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay, as described previously [20], and data are expressed as moles of malondialdehyde/mg protein. Protein concentration was determined by the Lowry method [21].

Sample preparation for analysis of fatty acid metabolites

Kidney homogenates were adjusted to 67% methanol and kept at −30°C, and samples were centrifuged at 5,000 × g for 10 min at 4°C to remove precipitated proteins. The supernatants were diluted with ice-cold distilled water and adjusted to 10% (v/v) methanol. Internal standards (5 ng of PGE2-d4, PGD2-d4, PGF-d4, and 5-HETE-d8, ARA-d8) were added to each sample. Samples were acidified to pH 4.0 with 0.1 M HCl and were immediately applied to preconditioned solid-phase extraction cartridges (Sep-Pak C18, Waters, Milford, MA, USA) to extract the fatty acid metabolites. Sep-Pak cartridges were washed with 20 mL water and 20 mL n-hexane in succession. Finally, fatty acid metabolites were eluted with 10 mL methyl formate.

LC-ESI-MS–MS-based analysis

Fatty acid metabolites in kidneys were measured, as described previously, with a slight modification [2224]. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was combined with ESI–MS using a TSQ quantum mass spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific K.K., Tokyo, Japan). HPLC was performed using a Luna 3u C18(2) 100Å LC column (100 × 2.0 mm, Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, USA) at 30°C. Samples were eluted in a mobile phase comprising acetonitrile–methanol (4:1, v/v) and water–acetic acid (100:0.1, v/v) in a 27:73 ratio for 5 min, ramped up to a 70:30 ratio after 15 min, to a 80:20 ratio after 25 min, held for 8 min, ramped up to 100:0 ratio after 35 min, and held for 10 min with flow rate of 0.1 mL/min. MS–MS analyses were conducted in negative ion mode, and fatty acid metabolites were detected and quantified by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Conditions for the detection of each compound by SRM are listed (S1 Table). Peaks were selected and their areas were calculated using the Xcalibur 2.1 software (Thermo Fisher Scientific K.K.).

Determination of cytokine levels

Plasma concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL10, IL-13, and TNF-α were measured using the Bio-Plex system which combines the principle of a sandwich immunoassay with Luminex fluorescent bead-based technology (Bio-Rad).

Statistical analysis

Results are expressed as means ± standard errors. Data were analyzed with Student’s t-test. Differences between the groups were considered significant at P < 0.05. All statistical analyses were performed using PASW Statistics 18.0 (IBM-SPSS, Inc., Armonk, NY, USA).

Results

Renal function parameters and plasma cytokine levels

A comparison of levels of plasma creatinine, BUN, and cytokine is summarized in Table 2. Levels of plasma creatinine and BUN were not significantly different between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between the two groups for plasma levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. ROS and LPO levels in the kidney were not significantly different between the two groups (Fig 1).

thumbnail
Table 2. Biochemical data and cytokine levels in plasma of ARA treated aged rats.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140884.t002

thumbnail
Fig 1. Effects of arachidonic acid administration on renal levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation.

(A) Reactive oxygen species and (B) lipid peroxide levels in the kidney. Values are expressed as means ± standard error (n = 14–16) percentages relative to the control. * P < 0.05 versus control group.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140884.g001

Plasma, kidney, and liver fatty acid profiles

Fatty acid profiles in the plasma after 13 weeks of administration are shown in Table 3. ARA concentration increased significantly in the ARA-administered group, whereas eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration in plasma decreased significantly in the ARA-administered group. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/ARA and EPA/ARA ratios decreased significantly, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio increased in the ARA-administered group. Mole percentages of oleic acid, linoleic acid (LA), and DHA decreased significantly in the ARA-administered group (data not shown). Fatty acid profiles in the kidney after 13 weeks of administration are shown in Table 4. ARA concentration increased significantly, whereas EPA and DHA concentrations decreased significantly in the ARA-administered group. The DHA/ARA and EPA/ARA ratios decreased significantly, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio increased in the ARA-administered group, which were similar to those in plasma. Fatty acid profiles in the liver after 13 weeks of administration are shown (S2 Table). EPA and OLA concentrations in the liver decreased significantly in the ARA-administered group, whereas ARA concentration increased significantly in the ARA-administered group. The DHA/ARA and EPA/ARA ratios decreased significantly, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio increased in the ARA-administered group.

thumbnail
Table 3. Effects of chronic ARA treatment on fatty acid profiles in plasma of aged rats.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140884.t003

thumbnail
Table 4. Effects of chronic ARA treatment on fatty acid profiles in kidney of aged rats.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140884.t004

Levels of eicosanoids and docosanoids in the kidney

Kidney analyses revealed an increase in renal formation of PGE2, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE in the ARA-administered group (Fig 2). Moreover, endogenous formation of DHA-derived PD1 and EPA-derived 5-HEPE, 18-HEPE, RvE2, and RvE3 decreased significantly in the ARA-administered group. Nonesterified ARA levels in the kidney increased significantly in the ARA-administered group, whereas levels of nonesterified EPA and DHA were not significantly different between the two groups.

thumbnail
Fig 2. Renal levels of arachidonic acid (ARA)-, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived metabolites.

Kidney samples were subjected to liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). (A) ARA-, (B) EPA-, and (C) DHA-derived metabolites. Values are expressed as means ± standard error (n = 14–16) percentages relative to the control. * P < 0.05 versus control group.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140884.g002

Discussion

One of the purposes of this study was to assess the effects of long-term ARA administration on kidney function. Plasma levels of BUN and creatinine are usually used in conjunction to measure kidney function, help diagnose kidney disease, and monitor kidney status. Long-term ARA administration did not affect levels of BUN and creatinine, suggesting that ARA-administration did not decrease renal function in aged rats. Next we assessed the levels of LPO and ROS as well as inflammatory cytokine levels in plasma; these were not affected by the ARA treatment, suggesting that ARA-administration itself did not cause inflammation and oxidative stress. These results agree with those of our previous study [16]. Yoshizawa et al. reported that an ARA-rich diet for dams during gestation and lactation does not modify N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced renal preneoplastic lesions in their offspring [25], indicating that exogenous free-form ARA does not induce inflammation or oxidative stress in the kidney.

The ARA concentration increased significantly in plasma, kidney, and liver after long-term ARA administration (Tables 3 and 4; S2 Table), and the calculated liver-to-plasma concentration ratio was 6.57 ± 0.44 in the control group and 6.51 ± 0.28 in the ARA group (P = 0.902); moreover, the kidney-to-plasma concentration ratio in the control and ARA group was 5.15 ± 0.35 and 4.43 ± 0.19, respectively (P = 0.085), indicating that orally administered ARA was well absorbed from the intestinal tract and was distributed in the kidney and liver; also, long-term ARA administration did not change the distribution from plasma to the liver and kidneys. These results agree with those of previous studies. Our previous study showed that oral ARA administration for 13 weeks significantly increased ARA levels in plasma [16]. Zhou et al. reported that free-form ARA is distributed from plasma to several tissues. The retention rate of ARA in the heart, lungs, kidneys, and bone marrow is higher than that in other tissues, but lower than that in the liver [26].

This is the first report to measure eicosanoids and docosanoids levels in the kidney of ARA administrated rats. It is well known that linoleic acid (LA) but not ARA administration increases ARA-derived metabolites in the kidneys [27]. It has also been reported that cytochrome P450-derived ARA metabolites are increased in kidney microsomes incubated with ARA in vitro [28]; no study has been published, in which ARA-derived metabolites of the kidneys were quantified in vivo following ARA administration. Chronic ARA administration increased levels of PGE2, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE in the kidney. PGE2 treatment promotes resolution of glomerular inflammation [29]. 15-HETE is capable of antagonizing the pro-inflammatory actions of leukotriene B4 in the rat [30]. 15-HETE antagonizes leukotriene-induced neutrophil chemotaxis in glomerular microcirculation [31]. It has been reported that 12-HETE is synthesized by renal cortical tissue and reduces basal renin release [32,33]. A previous study reported that these eicosanoids consistently fail to enhance IL-1-stimulated JNK1/SAPK activity [6]. These results indicate that increasing these eicosanoids by chronic ARA administration does not stimulate inflammation in the healthy kidney; on the contrary, the concentration of eicosanoids with renoprotective properties increased.

In contrast to healthy kidneys, long-term treatment with omega-6 PUFA causes severe inflammatory response in a rat renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model. COX-2 and LOX are induced during rat renal ischemia-reperfusion injury [34]. Long-term treatment with omega-6 PUFA LA, a precursor of ARA, significantly elevates serum creatinine levels as a result of 30 min of renal ischemiaand extends ischemia to 45 min caused 100% mortality in the omega-6 PUFA group, in contrast to 0% mortality in the omega-3 PUFA group [27]. Indomethacin (COX inhibitor)-treated mice present with better renal function and less acute tubular necrosis, reduced ROS, and lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines during acute kidney injury [35]. Taken together, these results indicate that increasing ARA levels as well as its metabolites in the injured kidneys may result in severe kidney damage. Because the administrated free-form ARA was taken up by the kidneys and was acylated into phospholipids for the plasma membrane and cell nuclei [26,36], long-term ARA administration did not induce inflammation or oxidative stress in the present study; however, eicosanoid production in ARA administered rats may markedly increase tissue injury and inflammation because of robust activation of phospholipases and downstream biosynthetic pathways. It has been reported that eicosanoids exert diverse and complex functions. In addition to their role in regulating normal kidney function, these lipids also play important roles in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases [37]. The present study also demonstrated that ARA-derived eicosanoids do not induce renal inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats.

Concentrations of non-esterified EPA and DHA increased slightly, but not significantly, in the ARA-administered group compared with those in the control group, although total EPA and DHA concentrations decreased in the kidney. Levels of EPA-derived eicosanoids 5-HEPE, 18-HEPE, RvE2, and RvE3 and the DHA-derived docosanoids PD1 decreased significantly in the ARA-administered group. These results suggest that ARA directly competes with the storage of EPA and DHA at the sn-2 position in phospholipids and blocks the production of EPA- and DHA-derived metabolites [38]. We have reported that the DHA-derived docosanoids RvDs and PD1 protect renal damage progression induced by metabolic syndrome [24]. EPA-derived eicosanoids and DHA-derived docosanoids are endogenous mediators with potent anti-inflammatory actions in the kidneys [39]. Administration of RvDs or PD1 to mice prior to ischemia results in a reduction in functional and morphological renal injury [40]. Hong and Lu demonstrated that RvDs and PD1 repress renal interstitial fibrosis, and PD1 inhibits the inflammatory response and promotes renoprotective heme-oxygenase-1 expression during acute kidney injury [41]. Heme-oxygenase-1 decreases acute tubular necrosis and significantly reduces COX-2 and microsomal PGE synthase expression [42]. Our study demonstrated that RvE2, RvE3, and PD1 levels decreased significantly in the ARA-administered group, indicating that anti-inflammatory defense may be attenuated by ARA administration.

In conclusion, ARA-derived eicosanoids are important regulators that maintain physiological renal functions. In addition, ARA-derived eicosanoids enhance the pathological response to renal injury. We assessed the impact of long-term ARA administration on normal renal function as well as on inflammation and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that ARA levels in the plasma, kidneys, and liver increased following ARA treatment. In addition, levels of PGE2, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE increased, and those of DHA-derived PD1, EPA-derived 5-HEPE, 18-HEPE, and RvE3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. However, kidney function, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were not affected by ARA treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that long-term ARA administration has no serious adverse effects under normal condition; however, further studies are needed to assess the risk of long-term ARA treatment in animal models of kidney injury.

Supporting Information

S1 Table. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions of fatty acid metabolites.

PG, prostaglandin; HETE, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; HEPE, hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids; Rv, Resolvin; HDoHE, hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid; PD1, Protectin D.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140884.s001

(DOCX)

S2 Table. Effects of chronic ARA treatment on fatty acid profiles in liver of aged rats.

PLA, palmitic acid; STA, stearic acid, OLA, oleic acid; LA, linolenic acid; ALA, α-Linolenic acid; ARA, arachidonic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; DPA, docosapentaenoic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; n-6, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; n-3, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Values are means ± SEM for 14–16 rats. * Significantly different from control group (P < 0.05).

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140884.s002

(DOCX)

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Enago for the English language review.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MK MH. Performed the experiments: MK TI YT AAM MA. Analyzed the data: MK YT AAM MA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MK MA. Wrote the paper: MK MH OS.

References

  1. 1. Hao CM, Breyer MD. Physiological regulation of prostaglandins in the kidney. Annu Rev Physiol. 2008;70: 357–377. pmid:17988207
  2. 2. Nasrallah R, Hebert RL. Prostacyclin signaling in the kidney: implications for health and disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;289: F235–46. pmid:16006589
  3. 3. Musu M, Finco G, Antonucci R, Polati E, Sanna D, Evangelista M, et al. Acute nephrotoxicity of NSAID from the foetus to the adult. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15: 1461–1472. pmid:22288307
  4. 4. Nolin TD, Himmelfarb J. Mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;(196):111–30. doi: 111–130. pmid:20020261
  5. 5. Harirforoosh S, Jamali F. Renal adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2009;8: 669–681. pmid:19832117
  6. 6. Huang S, Konieczkowski M, Schelling JR, Sedor JR. Interleukin-1 stimulates Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase by an arachidonate-dependent mechanism in mesangial cells. Kidney Int. 1999;55: 1740–1749. pmid:10231436
  7. 7. Kiritoshi S, Nishikawa T, Sonoda K, Kukidome D, Senokuchi T, Matsuo T, et al. Reactive oxygen species from mitochondria induce cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in human mesangial cells: potential role in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2003;52: 2570–2577. pmid:14514642
  8. 8. Goto S, Nakamura H, Morooka H, Terao Y, Shibata O, Sumikawa K. Role of reactive oxygen in phospholipase A2 activation by ischemia/reperfusion of the rat kidney. J Anesth. 1999;13: 90–93. pmid:14530946
  9. 9. Ferreri NR, An SJ, McGiff JC. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and function in the medullary thick ascending limb. Am J Physiol. 1999;277: F360–8. pmid:10484519
  10. 10. Kambe T, Murakami M, Kudo I. Polyunsaturated fatty acids potentiate interleukin-1-stimulated arachidonic acid release by cells overexpressing type IIA secretory phospholipase A2. FEBS Lett. 1999;453: 81–84. pmid:10403380
  11. 11. Zhou XJ, Rakheja D, Yu X, Saxena R, Vaziri ND, Silva FG. The aging kidney. Kidney Int. 2008;74: 710–720. pmid:18614996
  12. 12. Wang X, Bonventre JV, Parrish AR. The aging kidney: increased susceptibility to nephrotoxicity. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15: 15358–15376. pmid:25257519
  13. 13. Mei C, Zheng F. Chronic inflammation potentiates kidney aging. Semin Nephrol. 2009;29: 555–568. pmid:20006787
  14. 14. Vlassara H, Torreggiani M, Post JB, Zheng F, Uribarri J, Striker GE. Role of oxidants/inflammation in declining renal function in chronic kidney disease and normal aging. Kidney Int Suppl. 2009;(114):S3–11. doi: S3-11. pmid:19946325
  15. 15. Hashimoto M, Tanabe Y, Fujii Y, Kikuta T, Shibata H, Shido O. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates the impairment of spatial cognition learning ability in amyloid beta-infused rats. J Nutr. 2005;135: 549–555. pmid:15735092
  16. 16. Juman S, Hashimoto M, Katakura M, Inoue T, Tanabe Y, Arita M, et al. Effects of long-term oral administration of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the immune functions of young rats. Nutrients. 2013;5: 1949–1961. pmid:23760060
  17. 17. Inoue T, Hashimoto M, Katakura M, Tanabe Y, Al Mamun A, Matsuzaki K, et al. Effects of chronic administration of arachidonic acid on lipid profiles and morphology in the skeletal muscles of aged rats. 2014;91: 119–127. pmid:25128088
  18. 18. Hashimoto M, Shinozuka K, Gamoh S, Tanabe Y, Hossain MS, Kwon YM, et al. The hypotensive effect of docosahexaenoic acid is associated with the enhanced release of ATP from the caudal artery of aged rats. J Nutr. 1999;129: 70–76. pmid:9915878
  19. 19. Katakura M, Hashimoto M, Tanabe Y, Shido O. Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and alpha,beta -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney. Med Gas Res. 2012;2: 18-9912-2-18. pmid:22776773
  20. 20. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. 1979;95: 351–358. pmid:36810
  21. 21. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951;193: 265–275. pmid:14907713
  22. 22. Arita M. Mediator lipidomics in acute inflammation and resolution. J Biochem. 2012;152: 313–319. pmid:22923733
  23. 23. Isobe Y, Arita M, Matsueda S, Iwamoto R, Fujihara T, Nakanishi H, et al. Identification and structure determination of novel anti-inflammatory mediator resolvin E3, 17,18-dihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid. J Biol Chem. 2012;287: 10525–10534. pmid:22275352
  24. 24. Katakura M, Hashimoto M, Inoue T, Al Mamun A, Tanabe Y, Iwamoto R, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids protect renal functions by increasing docosahexaenoic acid-derived metabolite levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model. Molecules. 2014;19: 3247–3263. pmid:24642910
  25. 25. Yoshizawa K, Emoto Y, Kinoshita Y, Kimura A, Uehara N, Yuri T, et al. Arachidonic acid supplementation does not affect -methyl—nitrosourea-induced renal preneoplastic lesions in young Lewis rats. Oncol Lett. 2013;5: 1112–1116. pmid:23599748
  26. 26. Zhou L, Vessby B, Nilsson A. Quantitative role of plasma free fatty acids in the supply of arachidonic acid to extrahepatic tissues in rats. J Nutr. 2002;132: 2626–2631. pmid:12221221
  27. 27. Hassan IR, Gronert K. Acute changes in dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have a pronounced impact on survival following ischemic renal injury and formation of renoprotective docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1. J Immunol. 2009;182: 3223–3232. pmid:19234220
  28. 28. El-Sherbeni AA, Aboutabl ME, Zordoky BN, Anwar-Mohamed A, El-Kadi AO. Determination of the dominant arachidonic acid cytochrome p450 monooxygenases in rat heart, lung, kidney, and liver: protein expression and metabolite kinetics. AAPS J. 2013;15: 112–122. pmid:23139020
  29. 29. Kvirkvelia N, McMenamin M, Chaudhary K, Bartoli M, Madaio MP. Prostaglandin E2 promotes cellular recovery from established nephrotoxic serum nephritis in mice, prosurvival, and regenerative effects on glomerular cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304: F463–70. pmid:23283994
  30. 30. Fischer DB, Christman JW, Badr KF. Fifteen-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-S-HETE) specifically antagonizes the chemotactic action and glomerular synthesis of leukotriene B4 in the rat. Kidney Int. 1992;41: 1155–1160. pmid:1319518
  31. 31. Nassar GM, Badr KF. Role of leukotrienes and lipoxygenases in glomerular injury. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1995;21: 262–270. pmid:7565475
  32. 32. Henrich WL, Falck JR, Campbell WB. Inhibition of renin secretion from rat renal cortical slices by (R)-12-HETE. Am J Physiol. 1992;263: F665–70. pmid:1415738
  33. 33. Antonipillai I, Horton R, Natarajan R, Nadler J. A 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonate metabolism is involved in angiotensin action on renin release. Endocrinology. 1989;125: 2028–2034. pmid:2507288
  34. 34. Matsuyama M, Yoshimura R, Funao K, Kawahito Y, Sano H, Chargui J, et al. The role of arachidonic acid in a rat renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Mol Med Rep. 2008;1: 493–497. pmid:21479438
  35. 35. Feitoza CQ, Semedo P, Goncalves GM, Cenedeze MA, Pinheiro HS, Dos Santos OF, et al. Modulation of inflammatory response by selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in acute kidney injury. Inflamm Res. 2010;59: 167–175. pmid:19711010
  36. 36. Mate SM, Layerenza JP, Ves-Losada A. Arachidonic acid pools of rat kidney cell nuclei. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;345: 259–270. pmid:20838858
  37. 37. Hao CM, Breyer MD. Physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of lipid mediators in the kidney. Kidney Int. 2007;71: 1105–1115. pmid:17361113
  38. 38. Arnold C, Markovic M, Blossey K, Wallukat G, Fischer R, Dechend R, et al. Arachidonic acid-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes are targets of {omega}-3 fatty acids. J Biol Chem. 2010;285: 32720–32733. pmid:20732876
  39. 39. Serhan CN, Chiang N. Endogenous pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators: a new pharmacologic genus. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153 Suppl 1: S200–15. pmid:17965751
  40. 40. Duffield JS, Hong S, Vaidya VS, Lu Y, Fredman G, Serhan CN, et al. Resolvin D series and protectin D1 mitigate acute kidney injury. J Immunol. 2006;177: 5902–5911. pmid:17056514
  41. 41. Hong S, Lu Y. Omega-3 fatty acid-derived resolvins and protectins in inflammation resolution and leukocyte functions: targeting novel lipid mediator pathways in mitigation of acute kidney injury. Front Immunol. 2013;4: 13. pmid:23386851
  42. 42. Chok MK, Ferlicot S, Conti M, Almolki A, Durrbach A, Loric S, et al. Renoprotective potency of heme oxygenase-1 induction in rat renal ischemia-reperfusion. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2009;8: 252–259. pmid:19754408