Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).
Materials and Methods
Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation.
Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group.
Citation: Kemse NG, Kale AA, Joshi SR (2014) A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension. PLoS ONE 9(11): e111902. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111902
Editor: Stefan Strack, University of Iowa, United States of America
Received: June 21, 2014; Accepted: October 8, 2014; Published: November 18, 2014
Copyright: © 2014 Kemse et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are available in Supporting Information files.
Funding: This work was supported by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), New Delhi, India DBT Sanction Order No. & Date: BT/PR6472/FNS/20/656/2012 (SRJ). The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Preeclampsia (PE) is widely believed to be of placental origin ,  and a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality . Inspite of considerable research the aetiology of PE remains elusive . The role of maternal nutrition in influencing the risk of developing preeclampsia is unclear. Some studies suggest that supplementation with nutrients like calcium ,  in the treatment of preeclampsia have beneficial effects. On the other hand other studies suggest that dietary supplementation with calcium  and dietary intake of magnesium  do not aid in reducing the risk of preeclampsia.
Maternal vitamins and minerals have been shown to influence angiogenic factors in PE . Higher risk of preeclampsia in women with higher homocysteine and lower folate concentrations and vitamin B12 levels has been reported –. In contrast, other studies indicate no association of vitamin B12 with preeclampsia –. Further folic acid supplementation studies are inconsistent with some indicating beneficial effects – and others indicating no benefits –.
Similarly epidemiological studies indicate a negative association of n3 fatty acids with risk for PE , . Literature suggests that fish oil supplementation may be beneficial in reducing risk of preeclampsia , . A recent review suggests that maternal dietary ω-3 PUFA supplementation limits placental inflammation and oxidative stress  although limited data is available on its effects on PE . Recent reports suggest that inflammation and oxidative stress play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia , –. Micronutrients like folic acid and vitamin B12 are important determinants of the one carbon cycle and play a critical role in determining pregnancy outcome . Considerable experimental evidence indicates that micronutrient deficiencies or supplementation can modulate immune and inflammatory responses –. We and others have extensively demonstrated that these micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and influence epigenetic changes in the placenta . Omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to have anti-inflammatory effects .
A series of our studies have shown that altered folate, vitamin B12 levels and reduced DHA levels leads to increased homocysteine and oxidative stress in preeclampsia , . We hypothesize that combined supplementation of micronutrients (folate and vitamin B12) and omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the inflammatory cytokine like tumor necrotic factor – alpha (TNF-α) in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.
The objective of the study was to examine the effect of various nutrient supplements i.e. folic acid, vitamin B12 or omega-3 fatty acids given individually or in combination during preeclampsia in reducing inflammatory cytokine using a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.
Materials and Methods
The present study was carried out in accordance with the CPCSEA guidelines (Committee for the purpose of control and supervision of experimental animals) Govt of India. This study was approved by the Bharati Vidyapeeth Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC/CPCSEA/2618). The institute is recognized to undertake experiments on animals as per the CPCSEA, Govt of India.
The term ‘animal model of preeclampsia’ is commonly and consistently used when nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) was administered from d14 of gestation to induce preeclampsia-like syndrome in rats –. It has been reported that although chronic treatment with L-NAME may not reproduce the entire disease entity, it produces virtually all the pathophysiologies of preeclampsia in the animal model . In view of this the L-NAME induced rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension was used.
Animals, Breeding and Induction of L-NAME
Wistar albino rats (60 F, 20 M) were used for the present study Out of 60 females, 48 females became pregnant and were randomly divided into control and 5 dietary groups. The six dietary groups (n = 8 per group) were as follows: Control; PIH Induced; PIH Induced + Vitamin B12 (excess vitamin B12) supplemented group (PIH + B12); PIH Induced + Folate supplemented (excess folate) group (PIH + F); PIH Induced + Omega-3fatty acid supplemented group (PIH + O) and PIH Induced + Vitamin B12 (excess vitamin B12) + Folate (excess folate) + Omega-3 fatty acid supplemented group (PIH + B12 + F + O) and have been shown in study design (Table 1).
All dams were delivered by C section on day 20 of gestation to collect the placenta, liver and brain tissues. Dam blood was collected by cardiac puncture. At the same time pup liver and brain tissues were also collected.
L-NAME was used to induce hypertension in the pregnant rat. The blood pressure of the pregnant dams was recorded on the day L-NAME was administered i.e. d14 of gestation and once again on d19 of gestation. It was observed that L-NAME administration induced maternal hypertension. The dose of LNAME used was 50 mg/kg body weight/day and was administered by gavage from day 14th to 19th of gestation.
Diets (control and treatment) (Table 2) were prepared in accordance with the AIN-93 guidelines for purified diets for laboratory rodents . Vitamin-free casein was used for all treatment diets. The composition of diets in each group is given in table 2. The two groups, PIH + O and PIH + B12 + F + O were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids using fish oil capsules (MaxEPA, Merck Darmstadt, Germany) which contained a combination of DHA (120 mg) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (180 mg) per capsule. The treatment groups PIH + F and PIH + B12 + F + O had 8 mg of folic acid per Kg diet; while PIH + B12 and PIH + B12 + F + O had 50 µg vitamin B12 per kg diet (Table 2).
Feed intake of dams during pregnancy was recorded. During pregnancy, dam weights were recorded at 0, 7, 14 and 20 d to obtain weight gains. On d20 of gestation the litter weight and size was recorded in each group.
The absolute weights of the brain, liver and placenta were recorded on a Schimadzu electronic balance with a least count of 0.001 g. These vital organs were immediately snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C for various biochemical estimations. The relative organ weights were expressed as [(organ weight/weight of the animal)*100].
Analysis of fatty acids
The procedure for fatty acid analysis used in our study was revised from the original method of Manku et al. that has been reported by us earlier in studies , . Fatty acids were expressed as g/100 g fatty acid. Total of 15 fatty acids were detected. Saturated fatty acids include myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids include myristoleic, palmitoleic, oleic and nervonic acids. The omega-3 fatty acids included alpha linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid while total omega-6 fatty acids included linoleic acid, gamma linolenic acid, di-homo-gammalinolenic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid.
Analysis of Plasma Micronutrients and Homocysteine
Plasma vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels were determined using commercial kits by the Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) methods (Abbott Laboratory Abott park, Chicago, IL) on the Abbott Axsym System; 5F51-20 and the method has been reported by us earlier , . Plasma vitamin B12 levels were expressed as pg/ml, folate levels as ng/ml and homocysteine levels as µmol/L.
Lipid peroxidation measurements
Oxidative stress marker (MDA) levels were estimated from dam plasma and pup liver using Oxis kits (MDA586, Oxis International, Foster City, CA, USA). Briefly, thiobarbituric acid reacts with MDA to form a pink color, and the absorbance was measured at 586 nm. Tetramethoxypropane is used as a standard. MDA concentration is expressed as nmol/ml.
Protein carbonyl estimation
Protein carbonyl from pup liver was estimated by the method of Uchida et al. with some modifications . Briefly, 0.5 ml protein samples were mixed with an equal volume of 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (10 mM) in 2.5 M-HCl and incubated at room temperature for 1 h. After incubation, protein was precipitated by 20% TCA (0·5 ml) and washed three times with 1 ml ethanol: ethyl acetate (1∶1, v/v) mixture. Finally, the precipitate was solubilized in 1 ml of 6 M-urea and absorbance was read at 365 nm. Protein carbonyl concentration was calculated by using the molar extinction coefficient. The results were expressed as nmol carbonyls/mg protein.
Placental tumor necrosis factor levels-α (TNF- α)
Placental TNF-α were measured using the commercially available specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit (Abcam, Catalog No. ab100785). This assay employs an antibody specific for Rat TNF alpha coated on a 96-well plate. Standards and samples are pipetted into the wells and TNF alpha present in the sample is bound to the wells by the immobilized antibody. The wells are washed and biotinylated anti-rat TNF alpha antibody is added. After washing away unbound biotinylated antibody, HRP-conjugated streptavidin is pipetted into the wells. The wells are again washed, a TMB substrate solution is added to the wells and color develops in proportion to the amount of TNF alpha bound. The stop solution changes the color from blue to yellow, and the intensity of the color is measured at 450 nm. The placental TNF-alpha levels were expressed as pg/ml.
Blood pressure measurement
The blood pressure of the dams was measured using the pneumatic tail cuff device (IITC Life Science Inc.). The systolic and diastolic BP was recorded on d0, d13 and d19 of gestation for all dams. Three measurements with 30 s intervals were recorded and the average of these readings was calculated.
Values were expressed as mean ± SD. In the present study, statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Fisher's LSD test using SPSS/PC+ package (version 20.0 Chicago IL) for windows. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant difference.
Feed intake of dams during pregnancy
The feed intake for control and various treatment groups was similar among groups and was as follows: control (14.75±1.45 g/day); PIH induced (15.31±1.60 g/day); PIH + vitamin B12 (15.94±1.15 g/day); PIH + F (15.28±0.76 g/day); PE + O (15.60±0.79 g/day) and combined supplementation of folate, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids i.e. PIH + F + Vitamin B12 + O (15.19±1.83 g/day).
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of dams on d19 of gestation
The systolic and diastolic BP was similar between groups on d0 of gestation. Both systolic and diastolic BP were higher (p<0.01 for both) on d19 of gestation in the PIH induced group as compared to control. Similarly the systolic and diastolic BP in the maternal vitamin B12 (PIH + B12), maternal folate (PIH + F) or maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (PIH + O) to PE induced dams was higher (p<0.01 for all) as compared to control. However a combined maternal micronutrient supplementation (PIH + B12 + F + O) to PIH induced dams was able to lower only the systolic BP as compared to PIH inducd (p<0.05), PIH + B12 (p<0.05), PIH + F (p<0.01) and PIH + O (p<0.01) groups but not as compared to control (Fig. 1).
Values are expressed as Mean ± SD; p: Level of Significance; *p<0.05, **p<0.01 as compared to control; #p<0.05; ##p<0.01 as compared to PIH induced, ∧p<0.05; ∧∧p<0.01 as compared to PIH + B12 @p<0.05; @@p<0.01 as compared to PIH + F, $p<0.05; $$p<0.01 as compared to PIH + O.Dietary Groups: Control; PIH Induced; PIH + B12: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 supplementation; PIH + F: PIH Induced + folate supplementation; PIH + O: PIH Induced + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation; PIH + B12 + F + O: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 + folate + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation.
The total weight gain of dams in the PIH induced group was comparable to control. Similarly supplementation with individual micronutrients like folate (PIH + F), vitamin B12 (PIH + B12) or omega-3 (PIH + O) fatty acids and a combined micronutrient supplementation (PIH + B12 + F + O) also did not affect the weight gains of dams during pregnancy and was comparable to control. The litter size in all the groups was comparable to control. Litter weight is the average weight of all the litters at birth and was not affected by PE induction. In the present study L-NAME administration showed a trend for reduction in litter weight although it did not reach significance. However, the litter size was higher (p<0.05) in the PIH + O group as compared to control. In contrast, PIH induced group showed reduced (p<0.01 for all) pup weight in all groups as compared to control and did not improve either by independent or a combined micronutrient supplementation to PIH induced groups (Fig. 2).
Values are expressed as Mean ± SD; p: Level of Significance; *p<0.05, **p<0.01 as compared to control. Dietary Groups: Control; PIH Induced; PIH + B12: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 supplementation; PIH + F: PIH Induced + folate supplementation; PE + O: PIH Induced + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation; PE + B12 + F + O: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 + folate + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation.
Organ weights of dams on d20 of gestation.
In dams, absolute and relative liver weights were comparable between the groups. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to PIH induced dams (PIH + O) increased (p<0.05) the absolute as well as relative brain weights as compared to control. Similarly, maternal folic acid supplementation to PIH induced dams (PIH + F) (p<0.05 for all) increased the absolute brain weights as compared to control, PIH induced and PIH + B12 groups (Table 3).
Organ weights of offspring at birth.
It was observed that pups born to PIH induced dams had lower (p<0.01) absolute liver weights as compared to control. Similarly the absolute liver weight of pups born to dams from PH + F, PIH + O and PIH + B12 + F + O groups had lower (p<0.05) liver weights as compared to control. The relative brain weights of pups born to dams from PIH + F, PIH + O, PIH + B12 + F + O groups were higher (p<0.05) as compared to control. Absolute and relative placental weights were comparable among all groups (Table 4).
Dam plasma vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels on d20 of gestation
The levels of plasma vitamin B12 were comparable to control in the PIH induced group while that of folate was lower (p<0.01) as compared to control. In contrast the levels of plasma homocysteine were higher (p<0.05) in the PIH induced group as compared to control. Maternal vitamin B12 supplementation to PIH induced (PIH + B12) group increased (p<0.01) the levels of plasma vitamin B12. However, it could not normalize the levels of homocysteine and lowered (p<0.05) the plasma folate levels as compared to control.
Maternal folic acid supplementation to PIH induced (PIH + F) dams normalized the levels of folic acid to that of control. However, it also could not normalize the plasma homocysteine levels as compared to control although vitamin B12 levels were similar to that of control. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to PIH induced dams (PIH + O) increased (p<0.01 for both) the levels of plasma vitamin B12 but did not normalize the homocysteine although levels of plasma folate were comparable to control.
A combined maternal micronutrient supplementation to PIH induced dams (IH + B12 + F + O) increased (p<0.01) the levels of plasma vitamin B12 and normalised the levels of homocysteine to that of control. Levels of plasma folate in this group were also comparable to control (Fig. 3).
Values are expressed as Mean ± SD; p: Level of Significance; *p<0.05, **p<0.01 as compared to control; #p<0.05; ##p<0.01 as compared to PIH induced, ∧p<0.05; ∧∧p<0.01 as compared to PIH + B12 @p<0.05; @@p<0.01 as compared to PIH + F, $p<0.05; $$p<0.01 as compared to PIH + O. Dietary Groups: Control; PIH Induced; PIH + B12: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 supplementation; PIH + F: PIH Induced + folate supplementation; PIH + O: PIH Induced + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation; PIH + B12 + F + O: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 + folate + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation.
Placental fatty acid levels on d20 of gestation
The placental DHA levels were lower (p<0.05) while levels of arachidonic acid (AA) were similar to control in the PIH induced group. Maternal vitamin B12 supplementation to PIH induced dams (PIH + B12) also showed lower (p<0.05) DHA levels as compared to control. Maternal folate supplementation to PIH induced dams (PIH + F) was able to normalise levels of DHA as compared to control but showed higher (p<0.05 for both) DHA levels as compared to PIH induced group. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to PIH induced dams (PIH + O) lowered (p<0.01 for all) the levels of AA and increased (p<0.01 for all) DHA as compared to control, PIH, PIH + B12 and PIH + F groups in the placenta. A combined maternal micronutrient supplementation (PIH + B12 + F + O) also lowered (p<0.05 for all) the levels of AA as compared to PIH, PIH + B12 and PIH + F groups. In contrast levels of DHA in the placenta in this group were higher (p<0.01 for all) as compared to all other treatment groups (Fig. 4).
Values are expressed as Mean ± SD; p: Level of Significance; *p<0.05, **p<0.01 as compared to control; #p<0.05, ##p<0.01 as compared to PIH induced, ∧p<0.05; ∧∧p<0.01 as compared to PIH + B12; @p<0.05; @@p<0.01 as compared to PIH + F, $$p<0.01 as compared to PIH + O. Dietary Groups: Control; PIH Induced; PIH + B12: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 supplementation; PIH + F: PIH Induced + folate supplementation; PIH + O: PIH Induced + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation; PIH + B12 + F + O: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 + folate + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation.
Dam plasma MDA levels on d20 of gestation
PE induction increased (p<0.01) the plasma MDA levels as compared to control. In contrast, maternal vitamin B12 supplementation (PIH + B12), maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (PIH + O) or a combined maternal micronutrient supplementation (PIH + B12 + F + O) to PIH induced dams was able to lower (p<0.05 for all) the plasma MDA levels as compared to PIH group but not as compared to control (Fig. 5).
Values are expressed as Mean ± SD; p: Level of Significance; **p<0.01 as compared to control; #p<0.05; ##p<0.01 as compared to PIH induced; ∧∧p<0.01 as compared to PIH + B12. Dietary Groups: Control; PIH Induced; PE + B12: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 supplementation; PIH + F: PIH Induced + folate supplementation; PIH + O: PIH Induced + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation; PIH + B12 + F + O: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 + folate + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation.
Placental tumor necrosis factor –α (TNF-alpha) levels on d20 of gestation
PIH induced dams showed higher (p<0.01) levels of placental TNF- α as compared to control. Supplementation with individual micronutrients did not offer any benefit since maternal vitamin B12 (PE + B12), maternal folate (PE + F), maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to PIH induced dams also showed higher (p<0.01 for all) TNF- α levels in the placenta as compared to control. In contrast, a combined maternal micronutrient supplementation (PIH + B12 + F + O) to PIH induced dams was able to lower (p<0.01 for both) the levels of TNF- α levels in the placenta as compared to PIH and was comparable to that of control (Fig. 6).
Values are expressed as Mean ± SD; p: Level of Significance; **p<0.01 as compared to control; ##p<0.01 as compared to PIH induced; @p<0.05; @@p<0.01 as compared to PIH + F. Dietary Groups: Control; PIH Induced; PIH + B12: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 supplementation; PIH + F: PIH Induced + folate supplementation; PIH + O: PIH Induced + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation; PIH + B12 + F + O: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 + folate + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation.
Liver oxidative stress indices in the offspring at birth
The pup liver MDA and protein carbonyl levels were higher (p<0.01 for both) in the PIH group as compared to control. Maternal vitamin B12 supplementation (PIH + B12), and maternal folate (PIH + F) to PIH induced dams lowered (p<0.01 for both) the liver MDA levels in offspring as compared to the PIH group and were comparable to control. Similarly the protein carbonyl levels in these groups were also lower (p<0.01 for both) as compared to PIH but remained higher (p<0.01 for both) as compared to control. In contrast a maternal omega-3 fatty acid (PE + O) supplementation to PIH induced dams was able to lower (p<0.01 for all) the liver MDA and protein carbonyl levels as compared to control and other groups. Similarly a combined maternal micronutrient supplementation (PIH + B12 + F + O) to PIH induced dams also normalized the levels of liver MDA and protein carbonyl in offspring to that of control and PIH groups (Fig. 7).
Values are Mean ± SD; **p<0.01 as compared to C, ##p<0.01 as compared to PIH induced, @@p<0.01as compared to PIH + F; $$p<0.01 compared to PIH + O; ∧p<0.05, ∧∧p<0.01 as compared to PIH + B12. Dietary Groups: Control; PIH Induced; PIH + B12: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 supplementation; PIH + F: PIH Induced + folate supplementation; PIH + O: PIH Induced + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation; PIH + B12 + F + O: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 + folate + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation.
Liver fatty acid levels in the offspring at birth
The levels of AA (p<0.01) and DHA (p<0.05) in the liver of the offspring born to PIH induced dams were lower as compared to control. Maternal vitamin B12 supplementation to PIH induced (PIH + B12) dams showed lower liver AA (p<0.01) and DHA (p<0.05) in the offspring as compared to control. In contrast maternal folate supplementation to PIH induced dams was able to improve (p<0.05) DHA levels in the liver of the offspring as compared to control and PIH group while levels of AA continued to remain low (p<0.01) in this group as compared to control. Similarly maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (PIH + O) as well as combined maternal micronutrient supplementation (PIH + B12 + F + O) was able to normalize the levels of DHA to that of control (Fig. 8).
Values are Mean ± SD; **p<0.01 as compared to C, # p<0.05, ##p<0.01, as compared to PIH induced, @@p<0.01 as compared to PIH + F; $$p<0.01 compared to PIH + O; ∧∧p<0.01 as compared to PIH + B12. Dietary Groups: Control; PIH Induced; PIH + B12: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 supplementation; PIH + F: PIH Induced + folate supplementation; PIH + O: PIH Induced + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation; PIH + B12 + F + O: PIH Induced + vitamin B12 + folate + omega 3 fatty acid supplementation.
This study for the first time demonstrates the effects of either an individual or a combined maternal micronutrient (folic acid and vitamin B12) and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on placental fatty acids, inflammatory cytokines and blood pressure in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension on d20 of gestation. The key findings indicate that PIH induction 1) increases systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure 2) lowers pup weight 3) increases the dam plasma and pup liver oxidative stress 4) increases placental TNF alpha levels and 5) lowers placental and pup liver DHA levels. These effects of PE induction were ameliorated by a combined supplementation of folate, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids. In the present study, PIH induction using L-NAME administration increased blood pressure and is consistent with other recent reports –. However, individual supplementation of folic acid, vitamin B12 or omega-3 fatty acids did not lower while a combined supplementation was able to normalize the systolic blood pressure. Animal and human studies indicate that long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reduces blood pressure , . Similarly, in humans it has been reported that supplementation of multivitamins containing folic acid is associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia , . Also, higher folate intake in young adulthood is reported to be associated with a lower incidence of hypertension later in life . On the other hand reports indicate that vitamin B12 supplementation in older people with elevated baseline homocysteine concentrations did not lower BP . Earlier it was shown that n-3 fatty acids provided in the third trimester of normal pregnancy did not influence blood pressure .
In the present study PIH induction did not affect the total weight gain of dams during pregnancy in different groups and was comparable to control. This is similar to earlier reported studies , . In contrast others report lower body weights of dams on d18 of gestation as compared to control .
The present study also showed no effect of PIH induction on litter size and litter weight. In contrast, a few studies have shown reduced litter size in PE induced animals , –. Further in the present study L-NAME administration showed lower pup weights suggesting that intrauterine growth retardation may a consequence of severe preeclampsia. Our findings are in line with other studies reporting lower fetal weights in L-NAME treated dams –. In contrast other studies report higher fetal weights  or no change in fetal weights .
Studies using rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension and examining the effect of micronutrient supplementation are limited. In our study maternal supplementation of either folate, vitamin B12, DHA or a combination of folate, vitamin B12 and DHA did not affect the litter size, litter weight and pup weights.
In the present study L-NAME administration increased homocysteine levels and is similar to our human studies which report increased homocysteine levels in women with preeclampsia . Reports indicate that elevated levels of serum homocysteine may be associated with severity of pre-eclampsia , –. In the present study only a combined supplementation of vitamin B12, folate and omega-3 fatty acids was able to normalize the homocysteine levels. Earlier, studies indicate that folate, vitamin B12 and B6 supplementation for 6 weeks in women with pregnancy complication reduces homocysteine levels . Higher homocysteine levels are associated with increased oxidative stress . It has been reoprted that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with oxidative stress  and is proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia , . In the present study elevated MDA levels were observed in the PE induced group. Oxidative stress may play a central role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and higher levels have been reported by us and others in human , , – and animal studies , . It has been reported that increased free radicals lead to cellular dysfunction, oxidative damage of biomolecules and endothelial dysfunction . A recent review highlights the need to supplement preeclamptic women with antioxidants with a combination of essential fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) during pregnancy to counteract oxidative stress to prevent or delay the onset of preeclampsia and improve the health of mother and baby .
In present study, combined micronutrient supplementation was able to reduce the oxidative stress by lowering plasma MDA levels. It has been suggested that an antioxidant- micronutrient cocktail can modulate biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in humans . In addition a recent animal study demonstrates that ω-3 PUFA supplementation reduces placental oxidative stress and enhances placental and fetal growth .
Preeclampsia is considered to have a multifactorial etiology associated with inflammatory dysfunction . In the present study, higher levels of placental TNF-alpha was observed in PIH induced dams and is similar to earlier reported human studies – as well as in animals . In contrast there are some studies which show no significant differences in the serum levels of TNF-alpha between control and preeclamptic patients –.
In the present study L-NAME administration from d14 of gestation increased the levels of placental TNF alpha levels. These levels were not normalized when the L-NAME induced dams were supplemented with individual micronutrients. Thus only a combined micronutrient supplementation to L-NAME induced dams would be able to normalise the levels of placental TNF alpha. Reports indicate that fish oil has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties . It has been reported that n-3 PUFAs imparts their anti-inflammatory effects via reduction of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB activation which is a potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokine like tumor necrosis factor-α . Alternatively n-3 PUFAs are suggested to repress lipogenesis and increase resolvins and protectin generation, ultimately leading to reduced inflammation . Omega 3 fatty acids are reported to reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines .
In the present study PIH induction lowered placental DHA levels. These findings are in line with our earlier studies in women with PE  and also preterm pregnancy  which have reported lower DHA levels in the placenta. In present study a combined micronutrient supplementation increased DHA levels but also lowered arachidonic acid (AA) levels. Inverse relation between omega-3 fatty acids and risk of preeclampsia has been reported earlier , .
Many human and animal studies have linked oxidative stress and prenatal hypoxia to the fetal programming of adult diseases in the offspring – through the epigenetic processes . In present study, increased MDA levels were observed in offspring born to PIH induced dams which is consistent with other human studies , . We have earlier reported higher oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels in cord samples of preeclamptic women . Also in present study, protein carbonyl levels were higher in these offspring which is in agreement with other human reported studies , .
In present study a combined micronutrient supplementation was beneficial in lowering the levels of MDA and protein carbonyl in offspring born to rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension. One limitation of the study was that proteinuria was not measured. Nevertheless other studies have also reported maternal hypertension using administration of L-NAME with no reports on proteinuria , .
In the present study it is clearly seen that L-NAME administration to pregnant dams increases oxidative stress in both dams and offspring at birth. A combined supplementation of folate, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids was able to reduce the oxidative stress in both dams and offspring as compared to the L-NAME treated group. We have elaborately discussed that micronutrients (folic acid and Vitamin B12) and DHA are interlinked in the one carbon cycle in a series of human and animal studies , , , , . Changes in any of these nutrients can affect homocysteine levels, oxidative stress and also methylation reactions. Our human studies in women with preeclampsia have also demonstrated a negative association of DHA (an omega 3 fatty acid) with homocysteine levels . In our recent article we have elaborately described the possibility of ameliorating oxidative stress during pregnancy by modulation of the maternal one carbon cycle . Thus, in the present study, synergistic effects of these combined nutrients have beneficial effects in reducing the severity of preeclampsia while individual micronutrient supplementation did not provide much benefit in terms of reducing severity (Fig. 9).
To summarize, PIH induced dams demonstrated higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lower pup weight; increased oxidative stress makers (plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels), lower placental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor –alpha (TNF –alpha) levels as compared to control. These findings are in accordance with our human study where in PE women maternal oxidative stress homocysteine and DHA levels were shown to affect angiogenesis and contribute to the preeclamptic pathology and result in adverse effects on fetal growth measures. It has been reported that some of the clinical manifestations in preeclampsia may be a result of alterations in inflammatory mechanisms. Our study suggests that increased oxidative stress may contribute to placental inflammation which may lead to endothelial dysfunction resulting in preeclampsia.
In the current study, individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. We have earlier reported interaction of micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and DHA in the one carbon cycle and altered global DNA methylation patterns in human preeclamptic placenta. In the present study, a combined micronutrient supplementation to PIH induced showed beneficial effects in terms of reducing blood pressure, inflammation and oxidative stress. We also demonstrated that pup liver MDA and protein carbonyl levels were higher in the offspring born to PIH induced dams and a combined micronutrient supplementation showed beneficial effects.
To conclude the findings of the current study may have relevance to PE suggesting that combined supplementation of folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids may have implications for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. This may help to ameliorate the risk for non communicable diseases in the offspring.
We thank Mr. Atul Kamble and Mr. Ravindra Mulik for their assistance at the animal house.
Conceived and designed the experiments: SRJ AAK. Performed the experiments: NGK AAK. Analyzed the data: NGK AAK. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: NGK AAK SRJ.
- 1. Henao DE, Saleem MA (2013) Proteinuria in preeclampsia from a podocyte injury perspective. Curr Hypertens Rep 15: 600–605.
- 2. Roberts JM, Escudero C (2012) The placenta in preeclampsia. Pregnancy Hypertens 2: 72–83.
- 3. Chaturvedi S, Randive B, Mistry N (2013) Availability of treatment for eclampsia in public health institutions in Maharashtra, India. J Health Popul Nutr 31: 86–95.
- 4. Jido TA, Yakasai IA (2013) Preeclampsia: a review of the evidence. Ann Afr Med 12: 75–85.
- 5. Hofmeyr GJ, Lawrie TA, Atallah AN, Duley L (2010) Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4: CD001059.
- 6. Atallah AN, Hofmeyr GJ, Duley L (2002) Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD001059.
- 7. Villar J, Abdel-Aleem H, Merialdi M, Mathai M, Ali MM, et al. (2006) World Health Organization randomized trial of calcium supplementation among low calcium intake pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195: 639–649.
- 8. Oken E, Ning Y, Rifas-Shiman SL, Rich-Edwards JW, Olsen SF, et al. (2007) Diet during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Ann Epidemiol 17: 663–668.
- 9. Fowles ER, Walker LO, Marti CN, Ruiz RJ, Wommack J, et al. (2012) Relationships among maternal nutrient intake and placental biomarkers during the 1st trimester in low-income women. Arch Gynecol Obstet 285: 891–899.
- 10. Yanez P, Vásquez CJ, Rodas L, Durán A, Chedraui P, et al. (2013) Erythrocyte folate content and serum folic acid and homocysteine levels in preeclamptic primigravidae teenagers living at high altitude. Arch Gynecol Obstet 288: 1011–1015.
- 11. Tang Z, Buhimschi IA, Buhimschi CS, Tadesse S, Norwitz E, et al. (2013) Decreased levels of folate receptor-β and reduced numbers of fetal macrophages (Hofbauer cells) in placentas from pregnancies with severe pre-eclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 70: 104–115.
- 12. Mujawar SA, Patil VW, Daver RG (2011) Study of serum homocysteine, folic Acid and vitamin B12 in patients with preeclampsia. Indian J Clin Biochem 26: 257–260.
- 13. Ogundipe O, Hoyo C, Østbye T, Oneko O, Manongi R, et al. (2012) Factors associated with prenatal folic acid and iron supplementation among 21,889 pregnant women in Northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional hospital-based study. BMC Public Health 12: 481.
- 14. Bergen NE, Jaddoe VW, Timmermans S, Hofman A, Lindemans J, et al. (2012) Homocysteine and folate concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Generation R Study. BJOG 119: 739–751.
- 15. Sanchez SE, Zhang C, Rene Malinow M, Ware-Jauregui S, Larrabure G, et al. (2001) Plasma folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations in preeclamptic and normotensive Peruvian women. Am J Epidemiol 153: 474–480.
- 16. Rajkovic A, Catalano PM, Malinow MR (1997) Elevated homocysteine levels with preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 90: 168–171.
- 17. Walker MC, Finkelstein SA, Rennicks White R, Shachkina S, Smith GN, et al. (2011) The Ottawa and Kingston (OaK) Birth Cohort: development and achievements. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 33: 1124–1133.
- 18. Wen SW, Chen XK, Rodger M, White RR, Yang Q, et al. (2008) Folic acid supplementation in early second trimester and the risk of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 198 45: e1–e7.
- 19. Bodnar LM, Tang G, Ness RB, Harger G, Roberts JM (2006) Periconceptional multivitamin use reduces the risk of preeclampsia. Am J Epidemiol 164: 470–477.
- 20. Hernández-Díaz S, Werler MM, Louik C, Mitchell AA (2002) Risk of gestational hypertension in relation to folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 156: 806–812.
- 21. Li Z, Ye R, Zhang L, Li H, Liu J, et al. (2013) Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Hypertension 61: 873–879.
- 22. Ray JG, Mamdani MM (2002) Association between folic acid food fortification and hypertension or preeclampsia in pregnancy. Arch Intern Med 162: 1776–1777.
- 23. Thériault S, Giguère Y, Massé J, Lavoie SB, Girouard J, et al. (2013) Absence of association between serum folate and preeclampsia in women exposed to food fortification. Obstet Gynecol 122: 345–351.
- 24. Morris CD, Jacobson SL, Anand R, Ewell MG, Hauth JC, et al. (2001) Nutrient intake and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: Evidence from a large prospective cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol 184: 643–651.
- 25. Mahomed K, Williams MA, King IB, Mudzamiri S, Woelk GB (2007) Erythrocyte omega-3, omega-6 and trans fatty acids in relation to risk of preeclampsia among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital, Zimbabwe. Physiol Res 56: 37–50.
- 26. Poprawski G, Wender-Ozegowska E, Zawiejska A, Brazert J (2012) Modern methods of early screening for preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension–a review. Ginekol Pol 83: 688–693.
- 27. Jones ML, Mark PJ, Waddell BJ (2014) Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acids and placental function. Reproduction [Epub ahead of print].
- 28. De Giuseppe R, Roggi C, Cena H (2014) n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation: effects on infant and maternal outcomes. Eur J Nutr [Epub ahead of print].
- 29. Zhang Z, Gao Y, Zhang L, Jia L, Wang P, et al. (2013) Alterations of IL-6, IL-6R and gp130 in early and late onset severe preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 32: 270–280.
- 30. Xie C, Yao MZ, Liu JB, Xiong LK (2011) A meta-analysis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 in preeclampsia. Cytokine 56: 550–559.
- 31. Laresgoiti-Servitje E (2013) A leading role for the immune system in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. J Leukoc Biol 94: 247–257.
- 32. Gadgil M, Joshi K, Pandit A, Otiv S, Joshi R, et al. (2014) Imbalance of folic acid and vitamin B12 is associated with birth outcome: an Indian pregnant women study. Eur J Clin Nutr [Epub ahead of print].
- 33. Erickson KL, Medina EA, Hubbard NE (2000) Micronutrients and innate immunity. J Infect Dis 182 Suppl 1S5–S10.
- 34. Thurnham DI (2004) An overview of interactions between micronutrients and of micronutrients with drugs, genes and immune mechanisms. Nutr Res Rev 17: 211–40.
- 35. Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH (2007) Contribution of selected vitamins and trace elements to immune function. Ann Nutr Metab 51: 301–323.
- 36. Kulkarni A, Chavan-Gautam P, Mehendale S, Yadav H, Joshi S (2011a) Global DNA methylation patterns in placenta and its association with maternal hypertension in pre-eclampsia. DNA Cell Biol 30: 79–84.
- 37. Calder PC, Kew S (2002) The immune system: a target for functional foods? Br J Nutr 88 Suppl 2S165–S177.
- 38. Kulkarni A, Mehendale S, Pisal H, Killari A, Dangat K, et al. (2011b) Association of omega-3 fatty acids and homocysteine concentrations in pre-eclampsia. Clin Nutr 30: 60–64.
- 39. Mehendale S, Kilari A, Dangat K, Taralekar V, Mahadik S, et al. (2008) Fatty acids, antioxidants, and oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 100: 234–238.
- 40. Ma RQ, Sun MN, Yang Z (2011) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase lowers fatty acid oxidation in preeclampsia-like mice at early gestational stage. Chin Med J (Engl) 124: 3141–3147.
- 41. Ma RQ, Sun MN, Yang Z (2010) Effects of preeclampsia-like symptoms at early gestational stage on feto-placental outcomes in a mouse model.Chin Med J (Engl). 123: 707–712.
- 42. Brown C, McFarlane-Anderson N, Alexander-Lindo R, Bishop K, Dasgupta T, et al. (2013) The effects of S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine in a rat model of pre-eclampsia. J Nat Sci Biol Med 4: 330–335.
- 43. Nassar AH, Masrouha KZ, Itani H, Nader KA, Usta IM (2012) Effects of sildenafil in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced intrauterine growth restriction in a rat model. Am J Perinatol 29: 429–434.
- 44. Neerhof MG, Synowiec S, Khan S, Thaete LG (2011) Pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction in the rat. Hypertens Pregnancy 30: 28–36.
- 45. Mayr AJ, Lederer W, Wolf HJ, Dünser M, Pfaller K, et al. (2005) Morphologic changes of the uteroplacental unit in preeclampsia-like syndrome in rats. Hypertens Pregnancy 24: 29–37.
- 46. Takei H, Iizuka S, Yamamoto M, Takeda S, Yamamoto M, et al. (2007) The herbal medicine Tokishakuyakusan increases fetal blood glucose concentrations and growth hormone levels and improves intrauterine growth retardation induced by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. J Pharmacol Sci 104: 319–328.
- 47. Reeves P, Nielsen F, Fahey G Jr (1993) AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr 123: 1939–1951.
- 48. Dhobale MV, Wadhwani N, Mehendale SS, Pisal HR, Joshi SR (2011) Reduced levels of placental long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm deliveries, Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 85: 149–153.
- 49. Sable PS, Dangat KD, Joshi AA, Joshi SR (2012) Maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation during Pregnancy to a micronutrient-imbalanced diet protects Postnatal reduction of brain neurotrophins in the rat Offspring. Neuroscience 217: 46–55.
- 50. Sable PS, Kale AA, Joshi SR (2013) Prenatal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation to a micronutrient imbalanced diet protects brain neurotrophins in both the cortex and hippocampus in the adult rat offspring. Metabolism Clinical And Experimental 62: 1607–1622.
- 51. Uchida K, Kanematsu M, Sakai K, Matsuda T, Hattori N, et al. (1998) Protein-bound acrolein: potential markers for oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 28 95: 4882–4887.
- 52. Zhou Q, Shen J, Zhou G, Shen L, Zhou S, et al. (2013) Effects of magnesium sulfate on heart rate, blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity in preeclamptic rats treated with L-NAME. Hypertens Pregnancy 32: 422–431.
- 53. Sung JH, Jo YS, Kim SJ, Ryu JS, Kim MC, et al. (2013) Effect of Lutein on L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 17: 339–345.
- 54. Adamcova M, Ruzickova S, Simko F (2013) Multiplexed immunoassays for simultaneous quantification of cardiovascular biomarkers in the model of H (G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) hypertensive rat. J Physiol Pharmacol 64: 211–217.
- 55. Gad HI (2013) The potential role of anti tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibodies on some renal functions and vasoregulatory factors in preeclamptic pregnant Wistar rats. Saudi Med J 34: 490–496.
- 56. Hoshi T, Wissuwa B, Tian Y, Tajima N, Xu R, et al. (2013) Omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure by directly activating large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110: 4816–4821.
- 57. Nilsson A, Radeborg K, Salo I, Björck I (2012) Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study. Nutr J 11: 99.
- 58. Xun P, Liu K, Loria CM, Bujnowski D, Shikany JM, et al. (2012) Folate intake and incidence of hypertension among American young adults: a 20-y follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr 95: 1023–1030.
- 59. McMahon JA, Skeaff CM, Williams SM, Green TJ (2007) Lowering homocysteine with B vitamins has no effect on blood pressure in older adults. J Nutr 137: 1183–1187.
- 60. Salvig JD, Olsen SF, Secher NJ (1996) Effects of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy on blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 103: 529–533.
- 61. de Moura RS, Resende AC, Moura AS, Maradei MF (2007) Protective action of a hydroalcoholic extract of a vinifera grape skin on experimental preeclampsia in rats. Hypertens Pregnancy 26: 89–100.
- 62. Gairard A, Lopez-Miranda V, Pernot F, Beck JF, Coumaros G, et al. (2004) Effect of i1 imidazoline receptor agonist, moxonidine, in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension in pregnant rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 43: 731–736.
- 63. Fernández Celadilla L, Carbajo Rueda M, Muñoz Rodríguez M (2005) Prolonged inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in pregnant rats: effects on blood pressure, fetal growth and litter size. Arch Gynecol Obstet 271: 243–248.
- 64. Isler CM, Bennett WA, Rinewalt AN, Cockrell KL, Martin JN, et al. (2003) Evaluation of a rat model of preeclampsia for HELLP syndrome characteristics. J Soc Gynecol Investig 10: 151–153.
- 65. Tsukimori K, Nakano H, Wake N (2007) Difference in neutrophil superoxide generation during pregnancy between preeclampsia and essential hypertension. Hypertension 9: 1436–1441.
- 66. Tsukimori K, Komatsu H, Fukushima K, Kaku T, Nakano H, et al. (2008) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthetase at mid-gestation in rats is associated with increases in arterial pressure, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and placental apoptosis. Am J Hypertens 21: 477–481.
- 67. Tanir HM, Sener T, Inal M, Akyuz F, Uzuner K, et al. (2005) Effect of quercetine and glutathione on the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase, malonyldialdehyde, blood pressure and neonatal outcome in a rat model of pre-eclampsia induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 118: 190–5.
- 68. Yang X, Guo L, Sun X, Chen X, Tong X (2011) Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in preeclampsia rat model. Placenta 32: 681–686.
- 69. Kilic L, Güven C, Kilinç K (2003) Effect of maternal N-nitro-L-arginine administration on fetal growth and hypoxia-induced changes in newborn rats. Pediatrics International 45: 375–378.
- 70. Shiraishi M, Haruna M, Matsuzaki M, Ota E, Murayama R, et al. (2013) Relationship between plasma total homocysteine level and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant women. Nurs Health Sci.
- 71. Laskowska M, Laskowska K, Terbosh M, Oleszczuk J (2013) A comparison of maternal serum levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and homocysteine in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Med Sci Monit 19: 430–437.
- 72. Acilmis YG, Dikensoy E, Kutlar AI, Balat O, Cebesoy FB, et al. (2011) Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in maternal and umbilical cord plasma and homocysteine levels in placenta in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 37: 45–50.
- 73. Bibi S, Qureshi, Ahmad M, Qureshi PM, Memon A, et al. (2010) Hyperhomocysteinaemia, vascular related pregnancy complications and the response to vitamin supplementation in pregnant women of Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 60: 741–745.
- 74. Liu HH, Shih TS, Huang HR, Huang SC, Lee LH, et al. (2013) Plasma homocysteine is associated with increased oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in welders. Scientific World Journal 70487.
- 75. Kolling J, Scherer EB, da Cunha AA, da Cunha MJ, Wyse AT (2011) Homocysteine induces oxidative-nitrative stress in heart of rats: prevention by folic acid. Cardiovasc Toxicol 11: 67–73.
- 76. Micle O, Muresan M, Antal L, Bodog F, Bodog A (2012) The influence of homocysteine and oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome. J Med Life 5: 68–73.
- 77. Pimentel AM, Pereira NR, Costa CA, Mann GE, Cordeiro VS, et al. (2013) L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and oxidative stress in plasma and platelets of patients with pre-eclampsia. Hypertens Res 36: 783–788.
- 78. Gohil JT, Patel PK, Gupta P (2011) Evaluation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in subjects of preeclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol India 61: 638–640.
- 79. Patil SB, Kodliwadmath MV, Kodliwadmath SM (2007) Role of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidants in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 34: 239–241.
- 80. Menon J, Rozman R (2007) Oxidative stress, tissue remodeling and regression during amphibian metamorphosis. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 145: 625–31.
- 81. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M (2006) Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact 160: 1–40.
- 82. Hopkins MH, Fedirko V, Jones DP, Terry PD, Bostick RM (2010) Antioxidant Micronutrients and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Colorectal Adenoma Patients: Results from a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19: 850–858.
- 83. Jones ML, Mark PJ, Mori TA, Keelan JA, Waddell BJ (2013) Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces placental oxidative stress and increases fetal and placental growth in the rat. Biol Reprod 88: 37.
- 84. Bayram M, Taskaya A, Bagriacik EU, Ilhan MN, Yaman M (2012) The effect of maternal serum sFAS/sFASL system on etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med [Epub ahead of print].
- 85. Lau SY, Guild SJ, Barrett CJ, Chen Q, McCowan L, et al. (2013) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 levels are altered in preeclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Reprod Immunol 70: 412–427.
- 86. Catarino C, Santos-Silva A, Belo L, Rocha-Pereira P, Rocha S, et al. (2012) Inflammatory Disturbances in Preeclampsia: Relationship between Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood. Journal of Pregnancy 2012: 684384.
- 87. Bernardi F, Guolo F, Bortolin T, Petronilho F, Dal-Pizzol F (2008) Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2008 34: 948–951.
- 88. Guven MA, Coskun A, Ertas IE, Aral M, Zencirci B, et al. (2009) Association of maternal serum CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels with the severity of preeclampsia and fetal birth weight. Hypertens Pregnancy 28: 190–200.
- 89. Ellis J, Wennerholm U-B, Bengtsson A, Lilja H, Pettersson A, et al. (2001) Levels of dimethylarginines and cytokines in mild and severe preeclampsia. Acta Obstet GynecolnScand 80: 602–608.
- 90. Murphy SR, LaMarca BB, Parrish M, Cockrell K, Granger JP (2013) Control of soluble fms-like tyrosine-1 (sFlt-1) production response to placental ischemia/hypoxia: role of tumor necrosis factor-α. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 304: R130–R135.
- 91. Ozler A, Turgut A, Sak ME, Evsen MS, Soydinc HE, et al. (2012) Serum levels of neopterin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and Interleukin-6 in preeclampsia: relationship with disease severity. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 16: 1707–1712.
- 92. Afshari JT, Ghomian N, Shameli A, Shakeri MT, Fahmidehkar MA, et al. (2005) Determination of Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha concentrations in Iranian-Khorasanian patients with preeclampsia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 1: 5–14.
- 93. Freeman DJ, McManus F, Brown EA, Cherry L, Norrie J, et al. (2004) Short- and long-term changes in plasma inflammatory markers associated with preeclampsia. Hypertension 2004 44: 708–714.
- 94. Jia D, Heng LJ, Yang RH, Gao GD (2014) Fish oil improves learning impairments of diabetic rats by blocking PI3K/AKT/nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways. Neuroscience 258: 228–237.
- 95. Siriwardhana N, Kalupahana NS, Moustaid-Moussa N (2012) Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Adv Food Nutr Res 65: 211–222.
- 96. Maes M, Christophe A, Bosmans E, Lin A, Neels H (2000) In humans, serum polyunsaturated fatty acid levels predict the response of proinflammatorycytokines to psychologic stress. Biol Psychiatry 47: 910–920.
- 97. Kulkarni AV, Mehendale SS, Yadav HR, Joshi SR (2011c) Reduced placental docosahexaenoic acid levels associated with increased levels of sFlt-1 in preeclampsia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 84: 51–55.
- 98. Williams AL, Katz D, Ali A, Girard C, Goodman J, et al. (2006) Do essential fatty acids have a role in the treatment of depression? J Affect Disord 93: 117–123. Review.
- 99. Giussani DA, Camm EJ, Niu Y, Richter HG, Blanco CE, et al. (2012) Developmental programming of cardiovascular dysfunction by prenatal hypoxia and oxidative stress. PLoS One 7: e31017.
- 100. Derks JB, Oudijk MA, Torrance HL, Rademaker CM, Benders MJ, et al. (2010) Allopurinol reduces oxidative stress in the ovine fetal cardiovascular system after repeated episodes of ischemia-reperfusion. Pediatr Res 68: 374–380.
- 101. Zitnanová I, Sumegová K, Simko M, Maruniaková A, Chovanová Z, et al. (2007) Protein carbonyls as a biomarker of foetal-neonatal hypoxic stress. Clin Biochem 40: 567–570.
- 102. Thompson LP, Al-Hasan Y (2012) Impact of oxidative stress in fetal programming. J Pregnancy 2012: 582748.
- 103. Chen YC, Sheen JM, Tiao MM, Tain YL, Huang LT (2013) Roles of melatonin in fetal programming in compromised pregnancies. Int J Mol Sci 14: 5380–5401.
- 104. Namdev S, Vishnu BB, Adhisivam B, Bobby Z (2013) Oxidative stress and antioxidant status among neonates born to mothers with pre-eclampsia and their early outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med [Epub ahead of print].
- 105. Orhan H, Onderoglu L, Yücel A, Sahin G (2003) Circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress in complicated pregnancies. Arch Gynecol Obstet 267: 189–195.
- 106. Negi R, Pande D, Karki K, Kumar A, Khanna RS, et al. (2014) Association of oxidative DNA damage, protein oxidation and antioxidant function with oxidative stress induced cellular injury in pre-eclamptic/eclamptic mothers during fetal circulation. Chem Biol Interact 208: 77–83.
- 107. Howlader MZ, Parveen S, Tamanna S, Khan TA, Begum F (2009) Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in neonates born to pre-eclamptic mother. J Trop Pediatr 55: 363–367.
- 108. Dhobale M, Joshi S (2012) Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids through oxidative stress may reduce neurotrophic factors in preterm pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 25: 317–323.
- 109. Kale A, Naphade N, Sapkale S, Kamaraju M, Pillai A, et al. (2010) Reduced folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid and increased homocysteine and cortisol in never-medicated schizophrenia patients: Implications for altered one-carbon metabolism. Psychiatry Research 175: 47–53.
- 110. D’Souza V, Chavan-Gautam P, Joshi S (2013) Counteracting Oxidative Stress in Pregnancy through Modulation of Maternal Micronutrients and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Curr Med Chem 20: 4777–4783.