Although the chemopreventive effect of 5-aminosalicylates on patients with ulcerative colitis has been extensively studied, the results remain controversial. This updated review included more recent studies and evaluated the effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylates use on colorectal neoplasia prevention in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Up to July 2013, we searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SinoMed of China for all relevant observational studies (case-control and cohort) about the effect of 5-aminosalicylates on the risk of colorectal neoplasia among patients with ulcerative colitis. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were extracted from each study. A random-effects model was used to generate pooled ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed.
Seventeen studies containing 1,508 cases of colorectal neoplasia and a total of 20,193 subjects published from 1994 to 2012 were analyzed. 5-aminosalicylates use was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis (OR 0.63; 95%CI 0.48–0.84). Pooled OR of a higher average daily dose of 5-aminosalicylates (sulfasalazine ≥ 2.0 g/d, mesalamine ≥ 1.2 g/d) was 0.51 [0.35–0.75]. Pooled OR of 5-aminosalicylates use in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis was 1.00 [0.53–1.89].
Our pooled results indicated that 5-aminosalicylates use was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis, especially in the cases with a higher average daily dose of 5-aminosalicylates use. However, the chemopreventive benefit of 5-aminosalicylates use in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis was limited.
Citation: Zhao L-N, Li J-Y, Yu T, Chen G-C, Yuan Y-H, Chen Q-K (2014) 5-Aminosalicylates Reduce the Risk of Colorectal Neoplasia in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: An Updated Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 9(4): e94208. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094208
Editor: Fabio Cominelli, CWRU/UH Digestive Health Institute, United States of America
Received: August 10, 2013; Accepted: March 13, 2014; Published: April 7, 2014
Copyright: © 2014 Zhao et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81270442 and No. 81000152) and the Youthful Teacher Foster Plan of Sun Yat-Sen University (No. 09ykpy10). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). A recent meta-analysis encompassing 8 population-based cohort studies reported a 1.6% prevalence of CRC in patients with UC, <1.0% by 10 years, 0.4%–2.0% by 15 years, and 1.1%–5.3% by 20 years. The rate of CRC was 2.4-fold higher than that in the general population . Because of the importance of prevention and early detection of CRC in patients with UC, they have been discussed in many studies. Colonoscopic surveillance at regular intervals with multiple biopsies is considered the most effective way to detect and manage CRC early in UC patients and has been recommended for patients with long-standing UC –. On the other hand, the effect of potential chemopreventive drugs, such as 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA), thiopurines, and folic acid, on UC patients was also studied, but the results remain controversial.
5-ASA, a first-line agent for the treatment of mild to moderate UC, includes sulfasalazine and nonsulfasalazine (including mesalamine, balsalazide, and olsalazine). Since the meta-analysis by Velayos et al in 2005 demonstrated that 5-ASA could reduce the risk of CRC in patients with UC, this matter has been further discussed by a number of studies –. The recent meta-analysis based on population-based studies by Nguyen et al showed that 5-ASA was not effective to prevent CRC in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) . However, a recent long-term population-based study by Jess et al did not show the increasing risk of CRC in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) . Furthermore, chronic inflammation is presumed to be a key factor of CRC development in patients with IBD, but 5-ASA plays a limited role in inducing remission and maintenance of CD . As a result, it is necessary to separately analyze the chemopreventive effect of 5-ASA in patients with UC.
The objective of this study is to identify and update the association between 5-ASA use and colorectal neoplasia (CRN), defined as low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and CRC, in patients with UC.
Up to July 2013, we searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SinoMed of China for all relevant articles on the effect of 5-ASA use on the risk of CRN among patients with UC. Medical subject heading (MeSH) or key words used in the research included “Salicylazosulphapyridine”, or “Salicylazosulfapyridine”, or “Sulphasalazine”, or “Sulfasalazine”, or “Mesalazine”, or “Mesalamine”, or “5-aminosalicylic acid”, or “5-aminosalicylate”, or “Balsalazide”, or “Olsalazine”, with “colorectal cancer”, or “colon cancer”, or “dysplasia”, or “carcinoma”, or “neoplasia”, or “advanced neoplasia”, and “inflammatory bowel disease”, or “ulcerative colitis”. Reference lists of all included articles were scrutinized to disclose additional literature on this topic. All abstracts, review articles, commentaries, and book chapters were excluded. If an author published more than one articles using the same case series, we only used the article that reported the data with the largest number of cases and the most completed information.
Two authors (LNZ and TY) selected target studies following a Proposal for Reporting Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines . Observational studies were included if they: 1) were case-control or cohort studies; 2) evaluated and clearly defined exposure to 5-ASA (sulfasalazine, mesalamine, balsalazide, and olsalazine) in patients with UC or IBD as a whole; 3) reported CRN outcomes; 4) reported odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs), or provided data for their calculation; 5) were fully published.
Data extraction and Quality assessment
All data were abstracted onto a standard form and crosschecked by two reviewers independently. The data extracted from all the studies were as follows: the last names of first authors, years of publication, time periods of study, study designs, countries of origin, study settings (population-based or hospital-based), total numbers of cases in each group, distribution of IBD diagnosis (UC and CD), types of medications, durations, and average daily doses, outcomes reported, ORs, RRs or hazard ratios with and without adjustment for potential confounders, corresponding 95%CIs, and potential confounders used for adjustment. Disagreements were resolved by consensus including a third author.
The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of each study. This measure assesses aspects of methodology in observational studies related to study quality, including 8 items categorized into 3 major categories: selection (4 items, 1 star for each), comparability (1 item, up to two stars) and exposure/outcomes (3 items, 1 star for each) . The ultimate score of 6 stars or more was regarded as high-quality.
We quantified the association between 5-ASA and CRN by using the Dersimonian and Laird random-effects model. Because the incidence of CRN was relatively low, the OR mathematically approximated the RR. All reported summary estimates were from studies with adjusted data, unless otherwise reported. When ORs were reported separately for different doses, types of 5-ASA (sulfasalazine or nonsulfasalazine) and durations of exposure, an overall estimate was calculated using the published individual adjusted ORs for each subgroup.
The Q and I2 statistics were used to test statistical heterogeneity among studies. For the Q statistic, a P value of less than 0.1 is considered representative of statistically significant heterogeneity. I2 is the proportion of total variation contributed by between-study variation. An I2 index of around 25% is considered to demonstrate low levels of heterogeneity, 50% medium, and 75% high. Sensitivity analyses by reestimating pooled OR with omitting each study in turn were conducted to investigate the influence of each individual study on the overall meta-analysis summary estimate. Furthermore, subgroup analyses based on study designs (case-control or cohort), study settings (population-based or hospital-based), geographical regions, diseases (UC or IBD), and quality of studies were also performed to clarify the source of heterogeneity. In addition, cumulative meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the change of the effect estimates over time. In the cumulative meta-analysis, studies were chronologically ordered by year of publication, and the pooled ORs were obtained at the end of each year.
Publication bias and small study effects were assessed by Begg's test and Egger's test, with P<0.05 considered to show significant publication bias. STATA (Version 12.0; STATA Corporation, College Station, TX, US) was used for all analyses.
We reviewed 245 titles and abstracts from Medline, 226 from Web of Science, 424 from Embase, and no additional studies from Cochrane CENTRAL and SinoMed of China, and eventually chose 25 studies for further review –, , –. Four supplementary studies were identified, but only their abstracts from conference proceeding of scientific meetings had been published –. They were excluded from the pooled analysis because of lack of details on key study variables. Three studies were excluded for their duplicated data –. One study was excluded without the definition of 5-ASA exposure . Finally, 17 full-text articles were identified in this meta-analysis (Figure 1) –, –.
Seventeen studies containing 1,508 CRN cases, of which at least 75% were CRC cases, and a total of 20,193 subjects published from 1994 to 2012 were analyzed. Of the 17 studies, six were retrospective cohort studies and eleven case-control studies. Eight were population-based studies and nine hospital-based studies. Eight studies were conducted in Europe, seven in North America (six in USA, one in Canada), one in both Europe (Demark) and America, and one in Asia (China). Ten studies were exclusively based on UC patients; one study dealt with both UC and IBD patients; and six studies were based on IBD patients. The sample sizes ranged from 48 to 8,667 and the number of CRN cases varied from 10 to 364 (Table 1).
5-ASA and colorectal neoplasia
In a pooled analysis of all studies, 5-ASA use was associated with a reduced risk of CRN (OR 0.63; 95%CI 0.48–0.84; Figure 2). The protective effect remained significant with case-control studies (OR 0.64; 95%CI 0.45–0.90; Figure 2), and a trend towards reducing risk of CRN was also shown in retrospective cohort studies (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.34–1.03; Figure 2). Although the pooled OR of cohort studies was lower than that of case-control studies, the range of 95%CI was wider and the difference was not statistically significant, indicating a lower power in cohort studies.
Methodological quality and risk of bias
There was significant heterogeneity across all studies (I2 = 64.8%, P<0.001; Figure 2). Sensitivity analyses by reestimating pooled OR with excluding each study in turn were conducted. Pooled ORs ranged from 0.60 to 0.68, with all showing statistically significant association between 5-ASA and CRN (Figure 3). No obvious publication bias was found by Begg's test (Figure 4A) and Egger's test (Figure 4B).
The pooled ORs ranged from 0.60 to 0.68, with all showing statistically significant association between 5-ASA and colorectal neoplasia.
Begg's test and Egger's test identified no publication bias (Begg's test: Kendall's tau = −12, P = 0.65; Egger's test: bias = −1.36, P = 0.092).
Population-based and hospital-based.
The chemopreventive benefit was shown in Europe (OR 0.54; 95%CI 0.36–0.81; Figure 5B). However, no significant association was observed in North America (OR 0.77; 95%CI 0.57–1.03; Figure 5B). The OR of the study which included mixed patients in Europe (Demark) and America was 2.30 (95%CI 0.90–6.00). The OR of the study in Asia (China) was 0.28 (95%CI 0.13–0.60).
UC and IBD.
Average daily dose of 5-ASA use.
Six studies were included for their higher average daily dose of 5-ASA use (sulfasalazine ≥ 2.0 g/d, mesalamine ≥ 1.2 g/d). The use of a higher average daily dose of 5-ASA was associated with a lower risk of CRN (OR 0.51; 95%CI 0.35–0.75; Figure 6B). Only two studies defined a lower average daily dose of 5-ASA use (sulfasalazine <2.0 g/d, mesalamine<1.2 g/d) and the OR was 0.64 (95%CI 0.30–1.36; Figure 6B).
5-ASA use in extensive UC.
Three studies included patients with extensive UC (proximal to the splenic flexure). 5-ASA use in these patients was not associated with a lower risk of CRN (OR 1.00; 95%CI 0.53–1.89; Figure 6C).
A cumulative meta-analysis of the total 17 studies was conducted to evaluate the cumulative effect estimates over time. In 1994, Pinczowski first reported that 5-ASA was a protective factor for CRC in UC patients (OR 0.38; 95%CI 0.20–0.69). Between 1994 and 2006, nine studies were published, with a cumulative OR of 0.54 (95%CI 0.37–0.78; Figure 7). Between 2007 and 2012, eight more publications were added cumulatively, resulting in an overall effect estimate of 0.63 (95%CI 0.48–0.84; Figure 7).
Quality assessment and Subanalyses of high-quality studies
The results of the quality assessment according to NOS for case-control and cohort studies were shown in Table 2. The scores of the included studies ranged from four to eight stars. Twelve studies (71%) scored six or more were defined as high-quality, indicating a moderate to good study quality.
The chemopreventive benefit was shown in high-quality studies (OR 0.70; 95%CI 0.54–0.92; I2 = 55.7%; Table 3). Significant association was also observed in hospital-based, Europe, and UC studies, but not in population-based, North America, and IBD studies (Table 3).
Our pooled results from 17 studies indicated that the use of 5-ASA was associated with a reduced risk of CRN in patients with UC. The results also suggested that a higher average daily dose of 5-ASA use was more effective. The statistical analysis showed that there was significant heterogeneity across all studies (I2 = 64.8%, P<0.001; Figure 2). Therefore, sensitivity analyses by reestimating pooled OR with omitting each study in turn were conducted to investigate the influence of each individual study on the overall meta-analysis summary estimate. The results indicated that pooled ORs ranged from 0.60 to 0.68, with all showing statistically significant association between 5-ASA and CRN (Figure 3). The cumulative meta-analysis over time showed that the estimates gradually became consistent, and the corresponding CIs narrowed down with the increase in the number of included studies ordered by year of publication. In addition, the chemopreventive benefit remained significant in high-quality studies. Meanwhile, there was no obvious publication bias found by Begg's test and Egger's test (Figure 4). These analyses enhanced the reliability of this meta-analysis.
In general, hospital-based studies were more susceptible to selection bias than population-based studies. Our results demonstrated that population-based studies did not show a significantly protective effect on reducing the risk of CRN, while hospital-based studies did. This difference could be elucidated by the following two reasons. Firstly, hospital-based studies are prone to selecting more severe cases and have a higher risk of CRC compared with population-based studies. In addition, some population-based studies reported that patients with UC only had a modestly increasing risk of CRC, thus the benefit of 5-ASA for prevention of CRC in population-based studies might be inconspicuous –. Secondly, the compliance of the selected population in hospital-based studies was different from the general population, like avoiding unhealthy life style and taking 5-ASA more regularly. However, because of the significant heterogeneity among the population-based studies (I2 = 74.8%, P<0.001; Figure 5A), this result requires further investigations.
We found that the risk of CRN in Europe was significantly reduced, but it was not the case in North America. The reason for the difference is unclear. The differences in genetic susceptibility, culture, and lifestyle may explain part of the inconsistency of the results. Other confounders, such as the colectomy rates, the severity and extent of UC, and the selected population of UC and IBD, might also play an important role in the discrepancy.
The risk factors of CRC in patients with UC include: 1) duration/early onset age, severity and extent of UC; 2) degree of histological/endoscopic inflammatory activity; 3) family history; 4) primary sclerosing cholangitis . The first two risk factors are related to inflammatory burden. And chronic mucosal inflammation is a putative predominant mechanism responsible for increased risk of CRC. 5-ASA, as an effective anti-inflammation drug for patients with UC, is reasonably considered as a chemopreventive drug for CRC. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of anticancer effects of 5-ASA are plausible. 5-ASA may inhibit cell-cycle progression by interfering with TGF-β, TNF-α, NF-κB pathway and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, improve DNA replication fidelity, and reduce free radicals as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species . These support our findings that 5-ASA use could reduce the risk of CRN in patients with UC.
Consistent with the meta-analysis conducted by Velayos et al, the six studies with a higher average daily dose of 5-ASA (sulfasalazine ≥ 2.0 g/d, mesalamine ≥ 1.2 g/d) in our study also suggested a chemopreventive effect in patients with UC . In our study, all of the three studies including patients with long-term and extensive UC illustrated that 5-ASA use was ineffective on CRN prevention , , . Pooled OR of this subanalysis was 1.00 (95%CI 0.53–1.89; Figure 6C). One possible explanation is that the management and maintenance of remission of extensive UC is more difficult than that with distal colitis by 5-ASA use. Other long-term maintenance drugs (immunomodulators, like thiopurine and azathioprine, or biologics) are recommended to patients with extensive UC who have failed 5-ASA therapy, allowing such patients without 5-ASA use in quiescent disease . Besides, it has been demonstrated that thiopurines can protect IBD patients against advanced neoplasia . Accordingly, immunomodulators or biologics use in patients with extensive UC may exert significant bias on the effect of 5-ASA use in CRN prevention. Among the three studies, it was suggested that azathioprine showed no significant protective effect against CRN by Lasher and Rutter, but immunomodulators use was not reported by Linderberg , , . Additionally, adherence and average daily dose of 5-ASA use, which have considerable influence on the effect of 5-ASA use on long-term maintenance therapy in patients with extensive UC, were not reported in all of the three studies . Therefore, this result should be carefully interpreted and needs further investigations.
The included IBD studies (including CD patients) might result in a significant bias on the chemopreventive effect of 5-ASA on UC patients, because according to a recent Cochrane Database review and clinical guidelines, 5-ASA is not an effective drug to control CD and not highly recommended for the management of CD –. However, we included the six IBD studies and mixed them with the UC studies as the main analysis, considering that the six IBD studies were recently well-designed ones with large database and a majority of the subjects in these studies had UC. Nevertheless, we conducted a subgroup analysis of UC and IBD, demonstrating that the use of 5-ASA was associated with a reduced risk of CRN (OR 0.54; 95%CI 0.38–0.76; Figure 6A) in UC patients, but no significant association was shown in IBD patients (OR 0.85; 95%CI 0.63–1.15; Figure 6A).
There were several limitations in our study. Firstly, studies included in this meta-analysis were all observational studies (case-control and retrospective cohort studies). Therefore, the influence of confounding variables was inevitable in such long period studies. The main confounders, such as the colectomy rates and the severity and extent of UC, could not be obtained from all studies . Secondly, most of these studies extracted data of 5-ASA exposure from medical records and might result in inaccuracy. Apart from that, most of them did not describe clearly the duration and average daily dose of 5-ASA use. Thirdly, there was significant heterogeneity among all the studies. Although we investigated the influence of each individual study on the overall estimate and conducted subgroup analyses according to different study settings, geographical regions, and average daily doses of 5-ASA use, the heterogeneity remained significant in some of the subgroup analyses and unable to be clearly classified.
In summary, our pooled results indicated that 5-ASA use was associated with a reduced risk of CRN in patients with UC, especially in the cases with a higher daily dose of 5-ASA use. However, the benefit of 5-ASA use in preventing CRN in patients with extensive UC was limited. Large population-based and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these results.
Conceived and designed the experiments: TY QKC. Performed the experiments: LNZ JYL GCC. Analyzed the data: LNZ JYL GCC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LNZ GCC YHY. Wrote the paper: LNZ JYL. Independent literature searching and data extraction: LNZ TY.
- 1. Jess T, Rungoe C, Peyrin-Biroulet L (2010) Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 10: 639–645. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2012.01.010
- 2. Collins PD, Mpofu C, Watson AJ, Rhodes JM (2006) Strategies for detecting colon cancer and/or dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 19: CD000279. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd000279.pub3
- 3. Subramanian V, Logan RF (2011) Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 25: 593–606. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2011.09.003
- 4. Velayos FS, Terdiman JP, Walsh JM (2005) Effect of 5-aminosalicylate use on colorectal cancer and dysplasia risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Gastroenterol 100: 1345–1353.
- 5. Rubin DT, LoSavio A, Yadron N, Huo D, Hanauer SB (2006) Aminosalicylate therapy in the prevention of dysplasia and colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4: 1346–1350. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2006.08.014
- 6. Velayos FS, Loftus EV Jr, Jess T, Harmsen WS, Bida J, et al. (2006) Predictive and protective factors associated with colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a case-control study. Gastroenterology 130: 1941–1949. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2006.03.028
- 7. Gupta RB, Harpaz N, Itzkowitz S, Hossain S, Matula S, et al. (2007) Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study. Gastroenterology 133: 1099–1105. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.08.001
- 8. Bernstein CN, Nugent Z, Blanchard JF (2011) 5-aminosalicylate is not chemoprophylactic for colorectal cancer in IBD: a population based study. Am J Gastroenterol 106: 731–736. doi: 10.1016/j.ygas.2011.07.101
- 9. Gong W, Lv N, Wang B, Chen Y, Huang Y, et al. (2012) Risk of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer in China: A multi-center retrospective study. Dig Dis Sci 57: 503–507. doi: 10.1007/s10620-011-1890-9
- 10. Nguyen GC, Gulamhusein A, Bernstein CN (2012) 5-aminosalicylic acid is not protective against colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis of non-referral populations. Am J Gastroenterol 107: 1298–1304.
- 11. Jess T, Simonsen J, Jørgensen KT, Pedersen BV, Nielsen NM, et al. (2012) Decreasing risk of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease over 30 years. Gastroenterology 143: 375–381. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.04.016
- 12. Andrews JM, Travis SP, Gibson PR, Gasche C (2008) Systematic review: does concurrent therapy with 5-ASA and immunomodulators in inflammatory bowel disease improve outcomes? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 29: 459–469. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03915.x
- 13. Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, et al. (2000) Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA 283: 2008–2012. doi: 10.1001/jama.283.15.2008
- 14. Wells GA, Shea B, O'Connell D, Peterson'Connell J, Welch V, et al..The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. Available: http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp. Accessed 2103 Nov 9.
- 15. Georgescu EF, Ionescu RI, Niculescu M, Vancica L (2009) Systematic administration of 5-ASA derivatives during remissions for more than 9 months/year seems to protect patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis against colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 136: A764. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5085(09)63528-9
- 16. Nourani S, Huo DZ, Strum W, Rubin DT (2008) 5-ASA therapy and a lower inflammatory score in chronic ulcerative colitis are associated with a decreased risk of dysplasia and colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 134: A660. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5085(08)63080-2
- 17. Smith T, Swaroop P (2006) Mesalamine reduces the rate of colorectal dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis who are on urosdeoxycholic acid. Gastroenterology 130: A653.
- 18. Carrat F, Seksik P, Bouvier AM, Brousse N, Carbonnel F, et al. (2010) Aminosalicylates, thiopurines and the risk of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases: a case-control study nested in the CESAME cohort. Gastroenterology 138: S47. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5085(10)60213-2
- 19. Bernstein CN, Blanchard JF, Metge C, Yogendran M (2003) Does the use of 5-aminosalicylates in inflammatory bowel disease prevent the development of colorectal cancer? Am J Gastroenterol 98: 2784–2788. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5085(03)80179-8
- 20. Winther KV, Jess T, Langholz E, Munkholm P, Binder V (2004) Long-term risk of cancer in ulcerative colitis: a population-based cohort study from Copenhagen County. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2: 1088–1095. doi: 10.1016/s1542-3565(04)00543-9
- 21. Ullman T, Croog V, Harpaz N, Hossain S, Kornbluth A, et al. (2008) Progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: effect of mesalamine. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 6: 1225–1230. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2008.05.020
- 22. van Staa TP, Card T, Logan RF, Leufkens HG (2005) 5-aminosalicylate use and colorectal cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease: a large epidemiological study. Gut 54: 1573–1578. doi: 10.1136/gut.2005.070896
- 23. Terdiman JP, Steinbuch M, Blumentals WA, Ullman TA, Rubin DT (2007) 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 13: 367–371. doi: 10.1002/ibd.20074
- 24. Jess T, Loftus EV Jr, Velayos FS, Winther KV, Tremaine WJ, et al. (2007) Risk factors for colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: A nested case-control study from Copenhagen County, Denmark and Olmsted County, Minnesota. Am J Gastroenterol 102: 829–836.
- 25. Tang J, Sharif O, Pai C, Silverman AL (2010) Mesalamine protects against colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 55: 1696–1703. doi: 10.1007/s10620-009-0942-x
- 26. Baars JE, Looman CW, Steyerberg EW, Beukers R, Tan AC, et al. (2011) The risk of inflammatory bowel disease-related colorectal carcinoma is limited: results from a nationwide nested case-control study. Am J Gastroenterol 106: 319–328.
- 27. van Schaik FD, van Oijen MG, Smeets HM, van der Heijden GJ, Siersema PD, et al. (2012) Thiopurines prevent advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 61: 235–240. doi: 10.1136/gut.2011.237412
- 28. Pinczowski D, Ekbom A, Baron J, Yuen J, Adami HO (1994) Risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis: a case-control study. Gastroenterology 107: 117–120.
- 29. Moody GA, Jayanthi V, Probert CS, Mac Kay H, Mayberry JF (1996) Long-term therapy with sulphasalazine protects against colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: A retrospective study of colorectal cancer risk and compliance with treatment in Leicestershire. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 8: 1179–1183. doi: 10.1097/00042737-199612000-00009
- 30. Lashner BA, Provencher KS, Seidner DL, Knesebeck A, Brzezinski A (1997) The effect of folic acid supplementation on the risk for cancer or dysplasia in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 112: 29–32. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5085(97)70215-4
- 31. Eaden J, Abrams K, Ekbom A, Jackson E, Mayberry J (2000) Colorectal cancer prevention in ulcerative colitis: a case-control study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 14: 145–153. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2036.2000.00698.x
- 32. Lindberg BU, Broome U, Persson B (2001) Proximal colorectal dysplasia or cancer in ulcerative colitis. The impact of primary sclerosing cholangitis and sulfasalazine: Results from a 20-year surveillance study. Dis Colon Rectum 44: 77–85. doi: 10.1007/bf02234825
- 33. Rutter M, Saunders B, Wilkinson K, Rumbles S, Schofield G, et al. (2004) Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 126: 451–459. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2003.11.010
- 34. Winther KV, Jess T, Langholz E, Munkholm P, Binder V (2004) Long-term risk of cancer in ulcerative colitis: a population-based cohort study from Copenhagen County. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2: 1088–1095. doi: 10.1016/s1542-3565(04)00543-9
- 35. Jess T, Loftus EV Jr, Velayos FS, Harmsen WS, Zinsmeister AR, et al. (2006) Risk of intestinal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study from olmsted county, Minnesota. Gastroenterology 130: 1039–1046. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.12.037
- 36. Baars JE, Looman CW, Steyerberg EW, Beukers R, Tan AC, et al. (2011) The risk of inflammatory bowel disease-related colorectal carcinoma is limited: results from a nationwide nested case-control study. Am J Gastroenterol 106: 319–328.
- 37. Lyakhovich A, Gasche C (2010) Systematic review: molecular chemoprevention of colorectal malignancy by mesalazine. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 31: 202–209. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.04195.x
- 38. Lim WC, Hanauer S (2010) Aminosalicylates for induction of remission or response in Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12: CD008870. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd008870
- 39. Mowat C, Cole A, Windsor A, Ahmad T, Arnott I, et al. (2011) IBD Section of the British Society of Gastroenterology (2011) Guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut 60: 571–607. doi: 10.1136/gut.2010.224154
- 40. Lichtenstein GR, Hanauer SB (2009) Sandborn WJ; Practice Parameters Committee of American College of Gastroenterology (2009) Management of Crohn's disease in adults. Am J Gastroenterol 104: 465–483.
- 41. Kornbluth A (2010) Sachar DB; Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology (2010) Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee. Am J Gastroenterol 105: 501–523.
- 42. Feagan BG, Macdonald JK (2012) Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10: CD000544. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd000544.pub3